China’s New Political Economy

China’s New Political Economy

Abstract
China is one of the best economies across the globe. However attaining such a status is not an easy task yet China has managed to overcome all obstacles to ensure that the country remains among the leaders in the global economy currently, many developing countries have strengthened their economic growth and China is a perfect example. Immediately after opening various reforms, Chinese economy continued to grow exponentially for 30 years, and currently, the country’s economy is ranked as the third best economy in the global rankings. The fundamental reason for this study is to critically evaluate and identify the critical political, economic, social and innovative factors that have favored China to improve its economy at a drastic rate. In addition to that, the report will also suggest some techniques that China could make use to ensure that they have a continuous economic growth.

Introduction
China’s economy has grown tremendously since its reform and opening policy in 1978. Yueh affirms that “From the year 1978 to 2007, the mean development rate of China’s economy per capita GDP was approximately 8.6% annually” (Yueh, 2012). And until now it has not shown any signs of reducing its pace. In addition to that, from the year 2000 to 2007, the mean growth rate and development were estimated at 9.2% annually, and this growth in China’s GDP accounted for 35% of the world’s economic growth (Yueh, 2012). Through its immense economic growth and development, China has been able to eliminate poverty levels, and this has empowered most of its citizens even though the nation has a high population. According to, (Inkster, 2012) China’s first stage of economic development reforms mainly concentrated on its rural areas from the year 1978 to 1984. This ensured that the country’s economic development was even and not only centralized along essential cities and towns. On the other hand, non-farm businesses in rural areas were allowed to establish by the existing government, through encouraging household savings.
As a result, businesses began to manufacture simple industrial products which could not be supplied by other nationalized companies. This rapid production enhanced agriculture and created employment for people leaving in rural areas. Secondly, the process of the urban economic development reforms was a significant boost between the years 1985 to 1992, primarily for national companies, which were granted a more considerable operational autonomy (Epstein, 2012). The widespread ownership agent prohibited the efficiency of the private ventures, and the ownership businesses by other participants and this created a loophole for high competition from the local and oversee markets. The third phase of the Chinese economic growth took place as from the year 1993, which was encouraged by Deng Xiaoping’s public speech and the principal objective was to support more radical moves aimed at improving the country’s economy. Through the improvements analysis, some administrative supervision canceled a lot of constraints of economic development and growth, for instance, tax system, rural-urban migration, international trade and foreign investment and the banking system. The reforms created a market mechanism and different incentives that were not available in the socialist economy. In addition to that, the Government also absorbed the nation’s wealth of various resources and available labor into the growing economy, leading to an increase in productive activities and businesses, while also promoting economic development. Through a combination of these factors, China’s economy has continued to blossom over the years. Research Objective
1. To evaluate the critical economic factors contributing to Chinas economic growth and development.
2. To outline the political elements that enabled China’s economy to grow at a faster rate.
3. To establish technological factors contributing to Chinas economic growth and development.
4. To draft different recommendations or suggestions that can be implemented by China to ensure that it continues to sustain its economy.

Research Hypothesis
1. H1: China’s rapid economic growth is as a result of a combination of political, economic and technological factors.
2. H2: Chinas ties and relations with other countries play a significant role in its economic growth and development
Methodology
Research Design
The data collection will be collected using secondary sources like journals and books having different accounts of how China’s economy has been performing over the years. A holistic research design will be used to ensure that any latest trends in China’s economy are captured to provide that our data is accurate and up to date. The qualitative e-research framework will offer a way for us to think holistically concerning different disciplines that can be used in our study (Salmons, 2015).
For instance, the purpose of our study is to outline China’s new political economy and determine the implications of this new economy on the Chinese people. To get different responses from people requires another different data approach especially if the information is to be collected face to face. For a face-to-face data, collection interviews will be conducted. The respondents will be interviewed in specialized rooms where any information obtained cannot be subjected to any form of scrutiny or discrimination. However, for distant respondents, questionnaires will be sent via their email with a list of questions to answer. In the survey, the purpose of the study will be stated to ensure that a respondent knows the objective of the study. However, the data collected will have to meet the set research questions before it can be used for our research.
Research Questions
1. Was the analysis written within the last ten years?
2. In case of websites or articles, have they passed through an editor? (websites of organizations are a clear indication of sites which pass through editors)
3. Does the journal relate to China’s economy
4. Is the source accurate and verifiable?
5. Does the source show how China has been growing economically over the years?
6. Does the journal show the impact of Chinas economy globally and locally?
After meeting the research questions, approximately ten scholarly sources will be used for our study. However, for unique cases where interviews will be used the data will be appropriately analyzed to evaluate if there is any consistency or disparities with the data collected through the secondary sources.
Research Method
The research will use a theoretical framework, whereby different theories concerning the Chinese political economy will be evaluated to determine the most appropriate to apply for the study. However, the arguments selected need to be rational and logical to ensure that they make sense and have a back-up for another data collection source to ensure that they are accurate and reliable. In addition to that, there will be different ethical considerations applied to our data collection to provide a successful data collection plan. Respondent’s confidentiality will be our key priority to ensure that any respondent feels comfortable giving any form of data. As a result, respondents will not be allowed to write their names on the questionnaires to ensure that they remain anonymous. Davies and Hughes confirm that “anonymity of respondents” (Davis & Hughes, 20142) is a crucial part of any data collection plan.
Literature Review
Factors that Led to the Development of Chinas New Political Economy
I believe that the Chinese political economy did not grow just because of one single factor. The growth involved a combination of different economic factors, political factors, and technological factors. I, therefore, believe that through a complete PESTLE analysis of China we will be able to determine the process that led to the growth of Chinas economy and the driving force behind its sustainability over the years.
1. Economic factors
Social-economic structure
I heartily agree that the countries social- economic structure played a considerable role in the success of the nation’s economy. This is because the Chinese population is among the largest globally. Therefore, the people played a huge role towards ensuring that the country’s economy continued to flourish. A Social-economic structure refers to the quantities proportion, arrangement relevance, and mutual adaptability when different economic sectors are used, industrial businesses and various aspects of social reproduction in the whole economy from one system which acts as a single entity (Rasgotra, 2011). The economies social-economic structure involves an industrial structure, with a well-elaborated distribution system, a well-planned exchange program, consumer consumption analysis and finally a technical structure which looks at all the logistics involved. The most significant is the industrial structure which plays a significant role in a country’s economy. Mainly because the development rate is not considered as a problem, but a crucial point in that economic development and growth should be able to sustain and include different aspects as outlined by, (Shealy & Dorian, 2010). China’s government insists that the best path to industrialization is through ensuring that Chinas own characteristics and resources are utilized and exhausted. In addition to that, the government tries to expand domestic demand for its products, as per the consumer demand to make sure that they have a steady market locally. This is to promote its economic growth and development, which mainly depends on the investment and exports from different products as stated by, (Rauch & Trindade 2002).
Additionally, China’s government made a declaration of primary financial strategies, for instance, vitality sparing, renewal design, and recent change, innovative milestones, the territorial financial enhancement design, obsolete end, and ensuring abundance limit to the countries resources. These arrangements have improved China’s economy and caused a drastic growth. However, there remains a vital need for financial alteration to ensure that the country’s economic development advancement is ever developing from local businesses to internationally recognized companies. Due to the substantial household request growth, China’s economy has adapted to global budgetary emergency and trends to ensure that the country stays ahead of the rest. Still, it is essential to provide a steady and quick financial improvement. However, there are some vital interests in the long-run which require consistent enhancements like infrastructure (Ng and Schweitzer, 2012). The final concern is to improve urbanization to ensure that the economy has a right environment to thrive. Chinese monetary improvements have potential, but it is upon the auxiliary financial alteration and the residents to ensure that the entire economy grows. Therefore, the move by the Chinese government to focus more on its social aspects to improve the country’s economy was a good move because it has ensured that the state continues to grow economically.
Economic Development Level
I believe that through a change in the Chinese GDP and overall national wage increase will empower its local market, which additionally advances the improvement of its international industry. Along these lines, agriculturist can cordially strategize on the economic advancement of the globe. In the year 2011, the standard yearly GDP growth was approximately 7%, and new business people achieved 450 million (Wang-Kaeding, H. (2016). The unemployment in 2011 was controlled to about 5% (Wang-Kaeding, H. (2016)). On the other hand, the countries value level was kept stable. However, Chinas global income and use have a tendency to be adjusted now and then through the introduction of new products in the market that competes favorably. Economic System
It is arguably true that the first arrangement of China is the most center of inspiration for China’s rapid financial improvement and growth. However, there are three defining moments for this change. First and foremost, the prior charge economy was transformed into a communist market economy. In addition to that, China has over the years turned from a shut and semi-shut community to an open one. Thirdly, people living conditions have been upgraded. Additionally, the financial plans of China attempted to develop a unique market instrument from the standard framework, disregarding the family contract obligation and requirement framework in rural areas and transforming the state-claimed duties in the big cities (Rauch and Trindade 2002).
Macro-Financial Policy
In addition to that, I believe that two unique large-scale control techniques of financial policies in China made significant changes to the country’s economy, and the goal of the arrangement was to improve the steady and fast-growing economy. However, executing the proactive financial plan and expanding the financial essay writer expenditure of the government empowered the entire social business. These were used to invigorate the commercial growth within China. The Current Monetary Circumstance
I believe that the first current financial circumstance of China created the descending pattern for industrial growth. However, the Chinese growth rate in the retail market offers social purchasers quality products and purchaser certainty which builds consumer loyalty. However, most of China’s imports stayed at low levels over the years as a result of the government tried to focus more on a local economy. But as time elapsed, it became evident that outer contracting economies favor financial growth.
2. Political Factors
Effect of China’s National Arrangement
I believe that in the particular social structure of China, political issues dependably assume the central part of the economy. This is because financial improvement will unavoidably require the difference in the political framework. In addition to that, legislative matters can’t advance the commercial development of the country. However, protection from economic change can be determined by the Chinese government. Klossek and Nippa affirm that “to ensure political dependability and solidarity for a duration of time, political security and stability is very important” (Klossek and Nippa, 2012). The constant legislative issues are also an essential condition for financial enhancement which improves the economy. China has transformed from its previous to a more advertised economy where the country ensures that they use their resources to ensure that other nations are aware of their variety of products. In addition to that, a good market economy ensured that the Chinese business economy continued to blossom over the years. The countries market economy also played a critical role in the countries social structure, belief and cultural systems of the people. These improvements of financial, social and social changes influenced China’s political environment. The entire Chinese political situation is a crucial issue in the country’s economy because most policies and regulations are implemented through the government.
China Trade Agreement with Different Nations
I also agree that Chinese exchange concurrences with different countries and its upgrades on the structure of its outside exchange ensure that the country remains secure regarding international trade. From the import structure, the import items for residential development mirrors the use of finances (Noesselt and Soliz-Landivar, 2013). This is a clear indication that fostering good a relationship with foreign countries ensures that a state increases its revenues through its export and import markets. In the meantime, good relationships within China have also helped urban communities, especially along the seaside to trade with other cities, thus improving the country’s economy. The trade agreements also act as a sense of security and foster good relationships between the nations.
3. Technological Factors
I believe that China’s advance technological improvements over the years also play a significant role in its economic growth. The improved functional level of the countries technology accelerated customary ventures, promoted more innovations and discoveries, and improved the country’s economic and administration abilities. On the other hand, improved technology ensured that China can compete favorably with other economies without lagging behind. Better technology also ensured that the country can have better research centers to analyze other potential markets leading to economic growth. It is important to note that technology changes every now and then, it is therefore very important to ensure that an organization or company keeps changing with the changes in technology to ensure that it can compete favorably with other competitors and developed countries.

The Proposals to Manage the Financial Development of China
Even though, China is currently the third best economy globally. I believe the nations still have a lot of improvements to pursue to ensure that it becomes the best economy globally. I strongly think that through managing its financial development, China needs to adopt various measures to ensure that its economy continues to grow. Venture development and innovation change are two principle suggestions for China. Some suggestions are improvements that can take part within a short period of time while others require a gradual change for complete accomplishment.
Venture or Business Development
Venture development is the essential factor to maintain Chinese financial growth and improvement. Speculation assumes a significant part of Chinese fast development economy for the past 27 years. The move can ensure commercial development for an extended period. Currently, the Chinese economy is in a fast development array, so there is need to invest enormously in the economy. The country’s capital aggregation needs to ensure that it accomplishes the technological advancements which favor economic growth; It is a split decision that banks on more speculations, and higher economy improvements (Ray and Sarmiento, 2015). Typically, the Chinese economy has 20% speculation is on lodging facilities, and approximately 30% of the business ventures are based on foundation speculation (Ray and Sarmiento, 2015). Therefore, it means that half of the current Chinese experiments are immoderate, as a requirement of short and long-term financial developments (Maung, 2011). The sparing rate of China h moderates over the years have shown a development slant when all is said in done. It is imperative to note that, whether a business is a small-scale or large-scale it leads to a source of income for citizens and raises their living standards and this, in turn, improves their economy.
Technological Improvement
Technological change is among the critical factor that ensures the development of China’s economy. The financial hypothesis demonstrates that technological changes are among the “reasonable motor” for the economic growth and development of the Chinese economy (Innovation, 2010). In spite the fact that China is among the most remarkable commercial economies and has a better exchange power on earth, there is still an incredible void with other developed nations on the level of technology in use. Currently, China performs duplicates other countries purchases to fill the technological void and milestones of other countries as affirmed by, (Wang-Kaeding, H. (2016). This is a limiting factor of essay writers China economic growth into other different nations and horizons. The best way to handle such cases is through investing in learning institutions with advanced technologies. Through this move, the government can ensure that scholars and students are kept up to date with the current techniques to ensure that they can compete effectively with other economies across the globe. Improving technology can at first seem expensive because of installation of the required hardware, but in the long-run, the investment is always lucrative because an organization and economy stand a chance to reduce its production and operational costs because some actions can be automated through the use of machines.

Foreign Outsourcing
On the other hand, the Chinese government can focus on foreign outsourcing to fill the technological gap created by other countries. Foreign outsourcing refers to using resources like labor from other developed countries. This technique is way cheaper because it can happen online and the results are usually good. However, before outsourcing it is important to consider the rules and regulations outlined by the government against outsourcing or unlawfully acquiring resources of other countries. Exchange programs can also be facilitated by the government and Chinese allies to ensure that they can easily share information which will ensure that both economies gain from one another easily. Foreign outsourcing can also be regarding trying to acquire better and improved technologies from other countries to boost China’s economy. This method is cheaper and faster because no training is required.
Conclusion
Accounting for everything, the changes of the financial, political and technological arena have over the years empowered China to become one of the worlds “Fastest Developing Economies.” However, the three variable have to work together to ensure that the economy continues to stabilize and remain at a competitive level. However, various political changes and variations can result in a drastic deterioration of the economy, which can prompt the advancement of the financial and technological point of views. On the other hand, the changes and improvements of the country’s financial status and technical position have guaranteed the Chinese economy of a national strategy, giving the country social security. In addition to that, for the future bearing of the economy, the Chinese government needs to demand speculation and development of its technological advances as compared to other superior nations. The two are essential because they elevate China’s economy to maintain its financial progress and development. In addition to that, the Chinese government needs to ensure that they continue to support all local business and empower them to globalize as a measure to improve the living standard of its citizens and improving the country’s economy.
China also needs to focus more on its local market as a result of its high population. This will ensure that the government has enough funds and resources to venture into other international markets. However, before establishing their products and other services in other markets, it is crucial to ensure that their product falls in line with the cultural beliefs and norms of the surrounding community. Through appropriate marketing and aesthetic consideration alongside political considerations, China can ensure that other countries easily adopt its products. Creating useful ties with other countries especially with superpowers also provides that the nation gains easy to support and finance to fund its international businesses and endeavors. Focusing more on a local market is a good move by the government because it ensures that the country has a pool of market in its local environment before venturing into an international market and this increases security and reduces the risk involved in a business.
In addition to that, the Chinese can invest in higher learning facilities to ensure that they are at par with the current technological advancements. This is because one of the main issues that China has is the fact that the country is still lagging behind regarding technology. Therefore, it cannot compete with countries in Europe and America. However, the situation would have been very different if the country could easily compete technologically with other developed countries. Tapping into other economies in other remote parts of the world is also very important for China. Through this, the country stands a chance to improve its economy while at the same time expanding its horizons into other countries. The move also empowers other less developed countries to develop their economies and improve the living standards of their citizens. However, such steps require a lot of initial investment; therefore the nation should focus on a proper financial system and strategy that can to conduct appropriate market research of potential markets to make wise and proper investment decisions which will favor both countries. Creating good ties with other countries also plays a role in increasing the country’s economic growth and development.

References
Acemoglu, D., & Robinson, J. A. (2013). Economics versus politics: Pitfalls of policy advice. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 27(2), 173-92.Davies, M. B., & Hughes, N. (2014).Doing a successful research project: Using qualitative or quantitative methods. Palgrave Macmillan.
Epstein, W. N. (2012). Contract theory and the failures of public-private contracting. Cardozo L. Rev., 34, 2211.
Inkster, I. (2012). The Japanese industrial economy: Late development and cultural causation. Routledge.
Innovation, R. E. (2010). Energy Market Consequences.
Klossek, A., Linke, B. M., & Nippa, M. (2012). Chinese enterprises in Germany: Establishment modes and strategies to mitigate the liability of foreignness. Journal of World Business, 47(1), 35-44.
Ng, E., Lyons, S. T., & Schweitzer, L. (Eds.). (2012). Managing the new workforce: International perspectives on the millennial generation. Edward Elgar Publishing.
Noesselt, N., & Soliz-Landivar, A. (2013). China in Latin America: competition in the United States'” strategic backyard”.
Rasgotra, M. (Ed.). (2013). Science and Technology in China: Implications and Lessons for India. SAGE Publications India.
Rauch, J. E., & Trindade, V. (2002). Ethnic Chinese networks in international trade. Review of Economics and Statistics, 84(1), 116-130.
Ray, R., Gallagher, K., & Sarmiento, R. (2015). China-Latin America economic bulletin 2015 edition. Global Economic Governance Initiative, Boston University: Boston.
Salmons, J. E. (2015). Doing qualitative research online. Sage.
Shealy, M., & Dorian, J. P. (2010). Growing Chinese coal use: dramatic resource and environmental implications. Energy Policy, 38(5), 2116-2122.
Sumner, S. (2012). The case for nominal GDP targeting. Mercatus Research.
Wang-Kaeding, H. (2016). Strategic concepts and interest groups in China’s environmental foreign relations (1984-2015)(Doctoral dissertation, The London School of Economics and Political Science (LSE)).
Yueh, L. (2013). China’s growth: The making of an economic superpower. Oxford University Press.

Computer operations in information systems auditing

Information System Auditing

Computer operations in information systems auditing
Typically, computer-based technology is one of the critical requirements for a proper information system auditing. Formally, system audits referred to (EDP) electronic data processing audits which later changed to information system auditing. Peltier outlines that “Computer operation in auditing entail carefully examining all the management controls within the system infrastructure to ensure that data integrity is maintained, various IT assets are safeguarded within the system and ensuring that the entire system functions efficiently to achieve the objectives of the organization” (Peltier, 2016). Consequently, the audit involves an analysis of the system’s internal control protocols, security measures, IT governance and the entire development process. Therefore, the critical role of a computer audit is to analyze the current system in place guarding a firm’s information, through an evaluation of its inputs, outputs, and the processing cycle.

Data Management Systems in Information System Auditing
Many organizations nowadays are competing and operating in an information age. It is therefore very imperative to ensure that an organization data becomes secure against unauthorized entry or interferences through Trojans and viruses. According to (Peppard & Ward, 2016) “the critical role of database management systems (DBMS) within information system auditing is to ensure that a specific database can manage a set of structured data, allowing real-time analysis of operations on data as requested by various users having access to the systems”. However, strict data policies should be implemented to mitigate risks to data security, for instance; hacking, eavesdropping, unauthorized entry and espionage. A good data management system should have a backup plan in case of any data loss or in cases of illegal entries the networks should have firewalls that prevent and detect any remote access to the systems.
System Development and Maintenance Activities in Information System Auditing
However, Siewiorek and Swartz outline that “Most organizations develop systems either to advance their technology, gain an upper competitive advantage or create a change in its business processes” (Siewiorek and Swartz, 2017). For a proper system development, there are fundamental stakeholders; management, end users, system analysts, programmers and accountants and auditors comprising of the system development life cycle (SDLC). Additionally, there are vital aspects of system development that should be followed to ensure the success of the entire process as seen in figure 2.

Networks, Internet and Commerce in Information System Auditing
Consequently, there are different types of networks; Local Area Network (LAN), wide area Network (WAN) and internet. Each machine gets a specific 32-bit integer code called an IP address and hostnames used for networking. According to Mendez et al, (2014) LAN protocols use Ethernet and a token ring while WAN uses TCP/IP which are four layer networks and OSI model while has seven layers. However, the systems need to be encrypted through plaintexts, algorithms, keys, and ciphertexts. Additionally, user authentication is also very crucial to determine the real identity of a user before getting full access to the system or network. However, secure servers over the internet like SSL (secure socket layer) can reduce chances of intrusion over WAN. However, different gadgets are used to connect different workplaces within a network as seen in the figure below. On the other hand, electronic commerce involves B2C, B2B and C2C marketing and transactions ensuring that electronic payment systems are essay writers active and marketing and advertising can be conducted online through different social sites and pages. Finally, each system should be safeguarded against unlawful entry because any slight breach into the system can amount to immense loses for an organization.

References
Mendez, D. J., Riggins, M. D., Wagle, P., Bui, H. Q., Ng, M., Quinlan, S. M., … & Bailes, R. S. (2014). U.S. Patent No. 8,812,702. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.
Peltier, T. R. (2016). Information Security Policies, Procedures, and Standards: guidelines for effective information security management. CRC Press.
Peppard, J., & Ward, J. (2016). The strategic management of information systems: Building a digital strategy. John Wiley & Sons.
Siewiorek, D., & Swarz, R. (2017). Reliable Computer Systems: Design and Evaluatuion. Digital Press.

Chronic Urinary Tract Infections Treatment Case Nursing Essay

RP, a 72-year-old Caucasian female, was brought to the emergency room (E.R) from Hillcrest Adult Foster Care via ambulance. Preadmission report to F-300 stated that she came to E.R confused, lethargic and weak, complaining of acute pain upon urination. She also urinated small amounts (< 50 ml) multiple times per hour, without the feeling of completely empting her bladder. Urine sample was obtained using a straight catheter and sent to the laboratory along with a blood sample.

Upon arrival to F-300 RP’s labs revealed significantly lowered thyroid stimulation hormone (TSH), a lowered red blood cell (RBC) count, along with decreased hemoglobin and hematocrit (H&H). Her white blood (WBC) count was elevated, as expected with a urinary tract infection (UTI).

Primary Diagnosis and Priority Secondary diagnosis

The primary medical diagnosis was chronic urinary tract infections, with a secondary diagnosis of hypothyroidism.

Patient History

RP has a history of chronic UTI’s, hypothyroidism, chronic kidney disease (stage III), and chronic anemia. She has several admissions the past few months related mainly to UTI’s and dehydration.

PATHOPHYSIOLOGY/ETILOGY OF THE PRIMARY DIAGNOSIS AND PRIORITY

SECONDARY DIAGNOSIS

UTI’s are the results of infection, mainly from bacteria, fungi, viruses, or parasites. This leads to a condition referred to as cystitis (inflammation of the bladder). Most common of the UTI’s are from infection known as infectious cystitis. A bacterium, the most common cause of infectious cystitis, is from the external urethra, this spreads inwards to the bladder (distal to proximal). Once a bacterium migrates to the bladder and starts the process of growing, it can migrate to other parts of the body (Ignatavicius & Workman, 2006).

UTI’s present with symptoms that include frequency, urgency, retention, burning, foul odor, and incontinence.

According to Wikipedia, four stages must be met in order for bacteria to grow. These include an infectious agent, one that must be able to grow, multiply and enter the body. Once we have the agent, the bacteria must find a portal of entry, (how it enters the body). Once in the body it needs an adequate reservoir, a place where organisms can thrive and multiply and the susceptibility of host, how bacteria affects the body after entry. Determents include age, overall health and other co-morbidities of the host and the susceptibility to pathogens.

Most UTIs first grow in the perineal area due to irritation; in RP’s case this may have been caused by lack of personal hygiene due to being overly fatigued, brought on by her hypothyroidism.

Minton (2009) stated, “Thyroid is the most important hormone in the body. Because it stimulates the production of cellular energy, production of all other hormones will be negatively impacted when thyroid hormone levels are less than optimal. Every aspect of health is affected by low thyroid function. Hypothyroidism is signaled by fatigue and loss of energy”.

According to textbook, hypothyroidism is the result of decreased metabolism from low levels of thyroid hormones (THs). Low levels of THs may be a result of several different reasons: thyroid cells may fail to produce sufficient amounts, or the cells themselves are damaged. The patient may not be ingesting enough of the substances needed to make THs, especially iodide and tyrosine.

Low levels of THs affect most tissue and organs causing decreased cellular energy. The patient could become confused, lethargic, and have slowing of intellectual functions.

ACTUAL OR POTENTIAL IMPACT OF RELEVANT MEDICAL HISTORY ON THE PRIMARY DIAGNOSIS AND PRIORITY SECONDARY DIAGNOSIS

RP has a history of chronic UTI’s that has caused numerous admits to the hospital over the last few months. UTI’s that are left untreated may and can cause damage to the kidneys and start the process of renal failure. Chronic infection of the kidneys causes scar tissue, which decreases the function of the renal system. With renal failure, the body cannot rid itself of certain toxins that may contribute to UTI’s. Chronic UTI’s may lead to chronic pyelonephritis, repeated upper tract infection of bacteria that migrates from the bladder superior (toward the kidney) to the kidneys. RP’s diagnosis of chronic renal failure may be heightened by the chronic UTI’s.

Hypothyroidism and anemia, that cause fatigue and loss of energy, will discourage you from providing adequate hygiene. This encourages bacterial growth, which may start the chain of events leading up to a UTI.

RP resides at an extended care facility that may not have adequate staff to assure that she receives the necessary amounts of iodide and tyrosine needed stimulate TH production. She is also very confused which would decrease her understanding of the importance of proper nutritional intake.

MEDICAL MANAGEMENT: CHRONIC URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS And Hypothyroidism

A urine sample must be obtained either by a clean catch method or if client unable, by straight catheter method. A catheter method was used on RP, due to her confusion and retention.

Urinalysis testing for leukocyte esterase (n=negative) and nitrate (n=none), along with a WBC (n= 0-4) are specifically for diagnosis of a UTI’s (Mosby’s 2006). Normal urine should appear clear with a yellow tint present (Mosby’s 2006). A noticeable smell should not be present in uninfected urine; RP’s urine had a pungent odor noted. RP’s leukocyte esterase was 3+ and her nitrate was positive. WBC’s were to numerous to count. These results determined that RP did have a UTI.

Blood work was noted that RP’s thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) was 0.05 (n=2-10). This confirmed the diagnosis of hypothyroidism.

NURSING MANAGEMENT: URINARY TRACT INFECTION

Recommended textbook intervention is to monitor for signs of UTI’s. This includes, but not limited to: frequency, urgency, dysuria, incontinence, pyuria. In some older adults the only sign may be an increase in mental confusion or frequent, unexplained falls.

RP was on Q-4 hour vital sign assessment, paying close attention to any increase in temperature and/or heart rate. The patient remained afebrile throughout admission. Heart rate remained between 80-90 beats per minute. Respiratory rate remained between 16-20 breaths per minute.

Due to her confusion, bed alarms and padded side rails were used. She had a high fall risk assessment; therefore fall risk precautions were implemented upon admission.

She was placed on strict intake and output (I&O), and her fluids were monitored. She was instructed to drink required amount of fluid per day (1500ml). Staff member offered bedside commode every two hours to encouraging voiding. She and family members were informed as to the importance of RP to remain dry. This will limit the environmental factors needed for bacterial growth. RN (preceptor) communicated with adult foster care on the needs of the client after discharge. Lab results were also monitored closely for any change that would indicate worsening infection.

PHARMACOLOGICAL MANAGEMENT: URINARY TRACT INFECTION AND HYPOTHYROIDISM

Textbook recommends medications that treat bacteria and the promotion of client comfort. Cure is dependent on the antibiotic level achieved in the urine. Long-term antibiotic therapy is recommended for chronic UTI’s (Ignatavicius & Workman, 2006).

RP received, via intravenous therapy (IV), Azactam (antibiotic) per Dr. order, to treat her infection. Paroxetine mesylate (antianxiety agent, antidepressant) 30 mg by mouth daily, used to decrease anxiety. Also given Levothyroxine (hormone) as a thyroid supplement.

PROVIDER AND MANAGER ROLE: NURSING CARE PLAN

Priority Nursing Diagnosis

“P” Impaired urinary elimination

“R” Incontinence due to urinary tract infection

“C” Acute lower tract pain 7/10 upon urination, < 50 ml of urine voided per attempt, and chronic urinary retention

Priority Patient Goal

The patient will be able to state absence of pain or excessive urination by discharge AEB:

Pain upon urination 0/10, Decreased urge to void, Empting bladder completely

Three Priority Nursing Interventions

The nurse will monitor patient for incomplete emptying of bladder by using bladder scan post void. The nurse will encourage patient to drink water at each meal. The nurse will instruct patient on the signs and symptoms of a urinary tract infection.

Evaluation of Progress toward Patient Goal

The patient was able to recite some signs of UTI’s to nurse. She recognized pain on urination and foul odor as signs of an infection. The patient was reluctant to drink water at any one time. She continued to have incontinent periods, but this was less frequent on day of discharge. The patient partially met the goals put forth for her.

PROVIDER AND MANAGER ROLE

Member of the discipline and the Role of the Multi-Disciplinary Team

As a member of the discipline I was inclined to have verbal interactions with the ER staff before RP had arrived to F-300. Consulted with housekeeping to assure the RP’s room was cleaned and ready for admission. Ward clerk assured that tests were ordered. Dietician was consulted to help with nutritional needs. Discharged planner made transportation arrangement to return patient to long care facility. Social worker discussed local community resources of support with the family.

Provider of Care Role

As provider of care for this patient, I kept this patient cleaned and dry when incontinent. I utilized the fall risk precautions to provided safety. Implemented steps to encourage patient to accept and understand a bladder training routine. Monitored patient labs and reported abnormal results to the doctor.

Manager of Care Role

As manager of care I evaluated the client for her fall risk and implemented fall risk precautions. Delegated the placement of bed alarms and tabs to the LPN assigned to us. My preceptor and I discussed the possible ways to teach client prevention of developing UTI’s. Collaborated with nursing home staff on ways to improve client’s care at extended care facility.

Growth in the Manager of Care Role

In completing these tasks I was able to see the complete picture of the patient. I was educated on the disease process and the effect other co-morbidities had on providing an environment that encourages an infection. In caring for RP I was able to developed and strengthen my delegating skills, learning to rely on others and not solely on myself.

Professional and Personal Short term and long term goal

My professional short term goal is coaching nurses at my workplace concerning night shift IV skills. Working night shift denotes being awake when other individuals are fast asleep and trying to get some sleep when most of the planet is active. Whereas other individuals prefer working late at night, some people find that the shift can take some effort and time.

My duty will be to train the nurses and help them cope with night shift. First it is important for them to create an artificial night. If there is light penetrating through their bedroom, this will interfere with their sleep. Light cues the body to wake up, furthermore after working a long night shift everyone needs a good sleep. I will advice them always to use thick curtains that conceal the windows totally, and use earplugs to prevent noise from interfering with sleep (http://www.altjn.com/).

Next, I will teach the nurses to stick with a schedule. They should decide they are going to get some sleep and the time they want to wake up. In the course of nurses sticking with a schedule, it will enable them to become adapted to going to sleep either during the morning or the day. After a night shift, going straight to bed can give one a poor quality sleep. I will train the nurses to give themselves half an hour to unwind just before they go to bed. They should engage in something that will make them relax for instance reading a book or taking a warm shower.

My professional long term goal is obtaining my masters degree in nursing and teaching in a nursing program. The master’s in nursing degree will give me the background, skills and superior training to offer high-quality nursing care in a specific area, for instance advanced clinical training or research. By graduating with Master of Science in Nursing I will be qualified to be an advanced practice nurse (APN). I will deliver health care services that were formerly delivered by medical doctors.

A master’s degree in nursing will equip me with the tools to understand the complications involved in health care in addition to the business end of the organization. The master’s degree in nursing will give me the education as well as the credentials to qualify to teach a nursing program. I will consequently enjoy considerable increase in earnings, as a consequence of their enhanced skills and knowledge (http://www.graduateresearch.com/).

Without masters in nursing, I will never succeed as a nurse-educator. That is why my delight of teaching nursing is mostly because of the satisfaction I feel in returning to the society of these precious gifts through teaching the students. My nursing students’ success relies on their critical thinking skills, motivation for learning, as well as academic research and my ability as a nurse and educator. Accordingly I will maintain relevant, contemporary nursing knowledge and abilities. I will also use this knowledge when making decisions regarding the syllabus otherwise, my teaching in nursing would be insignificant.

However pure knowledge is not enough. In order to help prepare students for the future’s rapidly changing health care setting, I have to clearly, concisely, and compassionately share my knowledge with the students. I as well like communicating with my students. I treat my nursing students as collaborators, I motivate them to ask questions and I also support their efforts. I respect my students by talking with them confidentially concerning what worked and what did not work in patient-care circumstances. Moreover I invite nursing students to give me a call any time so that we can discuss their issues (http://www.nurseeducationtoday.com/).

My other passion for teaching is because of modeling professional principles and goals. Nursing students are always examining their instructors moreover during the unscripted times students discover a lot about nursing. That is why I continually talk up the profession, quoting the contributions of first pioneers as well as current practitioners and researchers. While I interrelate with patients, relatives, and other health care contributors, I will be modeling active listening, caring, as well as respect. I as well demonstrate professional assertiveness. Additionally, I role-play scenarios with my nursing students to assist them develop assertiveness abilities for dealing with associates.

Various nurses choose to be teachers for various reasons. For me choosing to be a nursing teacher was a practical option. Being a teacher will enable me to be home with my relatives during festivals, evenings and weekends. I will maintain clinical know-how with per-diem vocation. By staying up to date with ready access to the most recent evidence-based research, this will enable me to enhance my personal nursing practice.

My personal short term goal is to obtain employment with the Veterans Administration. Veteran’s Administration is a United States cabinet department that gives patient care, veterans’ benefits, as well as other services to veterans of America armed forces as well as their families. Veterans Administration is also known as “the VA,” the organization as well gives this group with disability reimbursement for those who are wounded or contracted an illness while serving, medical, education and training, and rehabilitative care, surgical, surviving spouse reimbursement, readjustment therapy, bereavement therapy, care and reimbursement to homeless veterans, life insurance, medical research, vocational rehabilitation, gravestones and burial markers, as well as home loan assistance (http://www.nurseeducationtoday.com/).

Starting salaries at the Veterans Administration are determined by the education, training, experience, the responsibilities of the position as well as guidelines from professional boards. I would really like to work with the Veterans Administration because the employees choose from a broad selection of health care plans founded on their individual requirements. Health maintenance associations, fee-for-service plans, in addition to point of service plans which are just a few of the alternatives. The Veterans Administration pays just about 75% of the health benefit premium.

Veterans Administration employees can as well benefit from VA Learning Online a program which offers a number of general education as well as college-level classes on the Internet. The Veterans Administration offers tuition reimbursement to persons who are studying in fields deemed to have shortages. Another reason which motivates me to work in Veterans Administration is that a childcare subsidy is presented to full- time as well as part-time Veterans Administration employees. This subsidy is remunerated on a sliding scale dependent on the income. Exchange work schedules are as well available in some conditions, and commuting assistance is presented to VA employees dependent on mass transit commuting costs (http://www.nurseeducationtoday.com/).

My personal long term goal is to retire in 15 years at the age of 70 with sufficient retirement funds. I have already prepared a saving plan for my retirement so that my dependants may benefit from it. At the present moment I may be enjoying good health but regardless of my current health and family medical history, calculating the costs of health care in retirement will mean that I will be better prepared for the unexpected incidents. Medical breaches and longer life expectancies have added to the increase in health care costs.

So as to save for my retirement I will focus on growing the retirement account with my employer or otherwise start my own individual retirement account otherwise known as (IRA). My IRA will supplement my employer retirement plan as a result there will be more funds to spend at retirement.

Another method to save money for my retirement account is to cut expenses on stuff that I do not need when I am about to retire. For example, I can save on what I eat and spend to ensure I use my finances. Additionally, I will only buy things that I need rather than buying just for the sake of buying. In due course, cutting expenses gradually will add up, and the extra cash can be added into my individual retirement accounts.

Several people have difficulties while planning appropriately before their retirement years. This is normally because most individuals have extra dire situations to handle. A number of these expenses such as family expenses, foodstuff, utilities and house expenses seem to be more important than saving for their retirement. Under this circumstance, though I have less money to contribute to my individual retirement plan, it is an excellent idea to set aside a small amount of money to plan for my retirement. Additionally, planning for my retirement will make it comfortable for me knowing that if an emergency occurs, a retirement account can offer needed funds.

Emotional Intelligence In Health Care Nursing Essay

In todays health care industry organizations are constantly striving to stay ahead of the competition. One area that has come into the spot light is the organization’s leaders. What types of leaders are paving the way for the organization’s future? After all, an organization is only as successful as the people it employs. In order to create a strong organizational culture and a successful health care system it must have effective leadership. It is theorized that one characteristic that many effective leaders possess is the ability to utilize their emotional intelligence. Throughout this paper we will discuss the importance of emotional intelligence in the modern day health care industry and the role it plays in effective leadership.

Emotional Intelligence is defined as “ability to perceive accurately, appraise, and express emotion; the ability to access and/or generate feelings when they facilitate thought; the ability to understand emotion and emotional knowledge; and the ability to regulate emotions to promote emotional and intellectual growth” (Faguy, 2012). There are five different mechanisms or “components” involved in the emotional intelligence aspect of leadership. They include self-awareness, self-regulation, motivation, empathy, and social skill. Self-awareness is “the ability to recognize and understand your moods, emotions, and drives, as well as their effect on others.” A self-aware leader is going to be in tune with their own emotions have the consciousness to realize how it affects those around them. Once these emotions have been identified, a leader with self-regulation will be able to control these emotions and will not act on emotional impulse. Self-regulation is “the ability to control or redirect disruptive impulses.” Motivation which is defined as “a passion to work for reasons that go beyond money or status” allows emotionally intelligent leaders to exhibit a strong desire to work and accomplish goals apart from those goals that are self satisfying. A leader with emotional intelligence will also be capable of expressing empathy for employees by understanding how they react emotionally to situations. Empathy is defined in the five components as “the ability to understand the emotional makeup of other people.” Finally, emotionally intelligent leaders will have strong social skills that allow lead their teams in change by managing and building trust and relationships amongst staff. (Golman, 2004) The following diagram maps out these components of a leader’s emotional intelligence.

Figure 1

Studies suggest that emotional intelligence affects a person’s mental health and well being; whereas the opposite or lack of emotional intelligence tends to be associated with individuals prone to violent behavior and overall decompensation. (Faguy, 2012) As a result of theories and studies that have produced similar conclusions, health care organizations have begun to place an emphasis on creating emotionally intelligent leaders. While many believe that leaders are born, some will protest that leaders can also be made. For this reason training programs are developed to help leaders learn how to become more emotionally intelligent. (Sadri, 2012) It is also important to note that while managers can also be leaders, not all leaders are managers. As Abraham Zaleznik stated, “Managers and leaders are two different animals. Leaders, like artisits, tolerate chaos and lack of structure. They keep answers in suspense, preventing premature closure on important issues. Managers seek order, control, and rapid resolution of problems.” (Zaleznik, 1992)

Teams tend to perform at a higher lever under an emotionally intelligent management, or at least management that has been through emotional intelligence training. (Sadri, 2012) While it is important for managers to be emotionally intelligent, managers are not the only people in an organization that benefit from these qualities and characteristics. Leaders are not only found in board rooms; they come in many different forms. (Goleman, 2004) Emotional intelligence is a fundamental key to success in the health care industry. It has been found that nurses that possess emotional intelligence characteristics are generally able to provide better care to their patients and are much happier while providing that care. When a nurse is able to read the patient’s emotions and empathize they are then able to approach the patient in the correct manner and optimize the patient’s care. Patients with will begin to feel more safe and comfortable with a nurse that has emotional intelligence. In the past comfort and compassion were seen as a woman’s job; therefore, male health care professionals did not attempt to empathize with patients. Also, health care was seen as a very technical and scientific field that did not involve emotions. With the direction the health care industry has taken with patient-centered care, these emotionless environments no longer are acceptable standards of care in the eyes of both patients and health care leaders. This creates a “profound need to bridge the gap between medical and emotional aspects of care.” (Venkatesh, 2012)

The Commonwealth Fund conducted a study of the emotionally intelligent based initiatives that Baylor Health Care System has put into place as common practice. Baylor Health Care System created the Best Care Committee in order to help provide “safe, quality, compassionate health care.” On this committee sits physicians and nurses that have direct contact with patients as well as other professionals that focus on patient safety and patient-centeredness. In order for the Best Care Committee to pass initiatives to improve patient care they must be in tune with the patient concerns and needs; the committee members must be able to decipher patient emotions and empathize with them. Then they must also have the social skills and be able to direct the correct emotions through the entire system for these patient-centered initiatives to be accepted and successful. Baylor Health Care System also provides training to its managers and leaders in order to enhance the patient care and their experience. An example of one of Baylor Health Care System’s emotional intelligence training classes is Accelerating Best Care. With all initiatives it is important to have strong leadership support, and these leaders must possess the skills and characteristics of emotional intelligence for any of their initiatives to be a success. (Emswiler, 2009) Baylor Health Care System has developed a culture of service excellence with emotionally intelligent leadership that is able to implement initiatives like the Best Care Committee. Herkenhoff believes that these types of cultures have great influence on the organizations themselves. This theory is expressed in the following diagram. (Herkenhoff, 2010)

(Herkenhoff, 2010)

Herkenhoff’s theory that there is a correlation between an organization’s culture and the emotional intelligence of its leaders was put to the test in a study that was preformed with 58 physicians. These physicians shared the same cultural beliefs but had begun to notice some communication problems amongst the group. Five of the physicians were selected randomly and given an emotional intelligence test to complete. The remaining physicians were polled, and information was collected on the five physicians in the focus group pertaining to their communication techniques. After all data had been gathered and compared it was discovered that there was a very strong correlation between the physicians’ emotional intelligence levels and their use of defensive communication tactics. The physicians with the highest emotional intelligence scores used defensive means of communication much less than those physicians with lower emotional intelligence scores. The graph depicts the relationship between the emotional intelligence levels and the defensive communication usage. (Herkenhoff, 2010)

(Herkenhoff, 2010)

As you can see, physician number one had the highest emotional intelligence score and the lowest use of defensive communication tactics.

Other studies have indicated that health care employees that possess emotional intelligence characteristics have a higher work performance and greater job satisfaction; they do not get “burned out” as easily and tend to not carry as much stress as a coworker that do not possess these emotional intelligence characteristics. It was also more common for more tenured employees to exhibit higher signs of emotional intelligence. While employees with more developed emotional intelligence characteristics showed a noticeable difference in job satisfaction and personal contentment over those that did not possess the emotional intelligence traits, they did not find any correlation to improved patient care. Although no direct patient care or satisfaction was improved in this instance, there still remains the possibility that increased employee satisfaction will in turn have an indirect positive impact on the quality of patient care in the future. (Birks, 2007)

The incorporation of emotional intelligence into the health care setting is a relatively novel idea aiming at improving the quality of patient care and creating a patient-centered approach to medicine. While there are not many studies proving its effectiveness, there have been several case studies proving its potential in achieving the modern day health care goal of higher quality care for patients. Not only does emotional intelligence have a promising future in creating patient-centered care, but it also has great value to health care employees and leaders. Emotional intelligence training offers increase job satisfaction, reduced stress, and potentially higher employee retention. It also fosters an environment of teamwork and trust. As a health care leader with emotional intelligence skills and characteristics, you will have much more success implementing initiatives and leading your organization into a bright and successful future. While many good leaders are “born”, great leaders can also be “made”. (Goleman, 2004)

Dream Of A Paperless Global Information Environment Media Essay

Over the past forty years the dream/prospect/myth/utopia of a paperless, global information environment [1] has always seized the imagination, achieved exceptional popularity and been greeted by mixed point of views. It all began in the 1960s, when experts anticipated the advent of a global information environment as an inevitable result of technological advances. They foresaw a technological and completely paperless future; where filing cabinets would give way to hard disks, messages and reports would be distributed electronically and paper invoices and memos would be substituted by electronic messages floating and speeding between various departments (Liu, 2008).

The notion of the “paperless office” actually dates back to 1975 when a prescient article foretold that, by 1995, “The Office of the Future” would have a “TV-display terminal with keyboard on every desk and we would be able to call up documents by pressing a button” (Pake, 1975).

It all seemed almost too good to be true, experts and scholars also were enthusiastically in full agreement on the imminent arrival of a paperless, global information environment because the benefits promised by such a scenario were compelling from every direction.

In an ideal paperless world, information would be stored and transmitted digitally and would become easily and readily accessible on demand to all users. The traceability of all documents at the earliest, even remote, would increase efficiency and drastically reduce time to process management and costs of back up information. Thanks to a robust and accurate classification, all paper documents will be digitized, stored and catalogued with multiple benefits: first, the environment, fewer trees to be cut, less pollution and, not least, this would represented significant savings both in terms of space and money (drastically reducing storage and printing costs, management and disposal of paper). All written communication would be mourned by whizzing real-time emails and huge reams of paper wasted in correspondence would disappear. The coming of laptops and mobile phones, in addition to the use of new digital technologies, such as HTML, word processors, spreadsheets and PDF files, would guarantee that we can carry around all the notes and documents we might need and that piles of paper would be completely redundant (Liu, 2009).

While most of those predictions were remarkably prophetic, the ‘paperless environment’ was not and when the early enthusiasm faded, it seemed even more distant than when it was proposed.

In fact, the majority of opinion was still on the conservative side, and Michael Gorman (2003) well summed these views when he states that we needed time to absorb the new ways of doing things that digital technology made possible.

Therefore, at the dawn of the new millennium the dream of a paperless, global information environment became a myth, almost a joke, crushed by new facts and figures, and ironically, by newer and better technological innovations.

Improvements in printers and photocopiers, the advent of word processing, and the ability to send messages via electronic mail not only failed to eliminate paper, they actually drove a new boom in paper production and use. So according to statistics, as digital technology made printing cheaper and easier than ever before, the worldwide consumption of paper per capita more than doubled between 1980 and 2000 (The Economist , 11 October 2008).

The difficulties and constraints of the unrealized dream of a paperless, global information environment were described most eloquently by Sellen and Harper in “The Myth of the Paperless Office”(Sellen, 2003). According to them the physical nature of paper has a range of social and psychological benefits. In addition to being a tangible and flexible object, paper is very well suited to all our needs. We can easily write on a sheet of paper without making any changes to the original text and allows us to read and write simultaneously. In addition, Sellen and Harper through the study of several statistics found that from a practical point of view, paper better supports reading multiple documents at the same time as it allows making cross-references and facilitates movement through a document.

Their text well summed up the new trend, which might be described as “the less-paper information environment”. This swerve was also supported and consolidated by numerous studies on reading habits showing that paper, by virtue of its physical characteristics described above, was more convenient and easier to read than a screen. The outcome is that people favoured reading on paper to staring at their PCs. Supporters of digital books as well were not used to read extensive electronic texts for long periods of time and normally if texts were longer than a few pages, people would print on paper those documents for reading (Dillon 1992).

Another of the main issues that prevented companies from digital technologies were copyright laws, as these laws severely limited the transfer of copyrighted documents from one medium to another, a classic example was the conversion of books in electronic format through the scanning process. Not forgetting to add also emotional factors in relation to the good old piece of paper such as trust and privacy (Walker, 2009).

The underlined message of all these studies was clear: people will continue to use paper in the face of digital technologies because paper and work practices have coevolved over the centuries and changing these long-standing work patterns would be too long and complicated.

However, since about 2001, global use of paper has actually been in decline and the initial predictions of a paperless, global information environment seemed to be coming true at last. This newer development shows that demand for many types of paper is on its way out and paper multinationals have been hard hit by the electronic age. The restructuring in the paper industry is proceeding at a furious pace and I am with the same mind with Steve Chercover, an analyst at D.A. Davidson when he says that “The only grade of paper immune to technological substitution is tissue,” such as bathroom or facial tissue (The Economist ,17 March 2007).

Since the publication of Sellen and Harper’s influential book, there have been also many improvements in the technology that specifically addressed issues raised in their work (Terry, 2009).

For example one of the main impediments to going paperless was the need for ink or “wet” signatures that has been deep-rooted in our culture for centuries. Actually we have been performing digital signatures for a long time and they are safe and possible to use directly with electronic documents in multiple forms including encrypted keys that represent a specific person or marks that are similar to physical signatures (Walker, 2009).

Nevertheless, the explanation of this change seems to be sociological rather than technological and has been attributed to a generation shift. I think that the progress towards a paperless, technological world will depend not so much on technological constraints but on the outcome of a more complicated set of relationships between technical and social factors. Communities are slow to adopt new tools, often not doing so until many years after they have been made available. It is therefore likely that the convergence between new information and telecommunication technologies will not gain widespread acceptance until sufficient time has passed to enable users to feel comfortable in their everyday use.

New studies pointed out that a new generation of workers, who have grown up with milk, Internet and mobile phones, do not need to print papers out as much as their older colleagues did. Tests on younger people show that they are less inclined to print out documents, and more inclined to read them on a screen. Although these younger generations have been helped by the enormous technological advances of recent years such modern screens and devices which facilitate reading on the screen, making it less tiring for the eyes and that can be easily transported anywhere (The Economist, 11 October, 2008).

In my opinion the main difficulty in accepting a paperless, global information environment is not technology such as file format compatibility, longevity of digital documents and making sure everyone have the technological skills required. Even if there may be costs and temporary productivity losses involved when adapting these issues, it can be easily overcome for commercially feasible technology is widely available at feasible cost. Sufficient processing power, storage, backup, and Internet speeds are available that can make old paper records instantly available not just from stationary computers but laptops and even phones. The challenge instead is the human factor. Often people are simply used to how things are and don’t want to sign off on drastic change. For these reasons, I agree with Greg Gibson, in charge at International Paper the world’s largest paper-maker, when he says that it is a “generational thing” (The economist 11/10/2008).

Older people still prefer a hard copy of most things, but younger workers are increasingly comfortable reading on screens and storing and retrieving information on computers or online. As new generations of office workers leave university-where their class notes and syllabuses are online these days-they take their habits with them. They like digital information because it reduces clutter. It can be “tagged” and thus filed into many folders instead of just one physical file. It can be searched by keyword. It can be cut, pasted and remixed. It allows for easier collaboration, through features such as “track changes”. It can be shared across an ocean as easily as across a desk. Increasingly, it resides in the internet “cloud” and can be accessed from anywhere, not just in the office. By contrast, paper tends to get torn, stained, burnt, soaked and lost. Each new generation moves on to new things, even as the previous generation refuses to let go of the old. Today’s generation uses SMS, instant chat and social networking as its primary form of communication – 15 years back they never existed. Twenty years back most offices refused to even think of email – and see where we are today. Most of us spent the first half of our lives without a mobile phone – today’s kids think of it as a toy as they’ve been exposed to it from day one. Most people over 50 can’t wrap their heads around touch-screens – most teens can’t think of a device without one. New generations that have grown on the contrary with the computer have definitely fewer problems in the approach to an I Pad that could replace, for example, the typical notebook during a meeting or read the documents directly display on a smart phone rather than on a computer screen. It’s inevitable and meant to be. The next generation brings in new things.

That it is why we have to enjoy your last few sessions with paper for its time has finally come and soon our old ‘paper generation’ will have to give way to the new ‘paperless generation’ – Thank Goodness!

Reality Is The Life Of The Media Media Essay

After watching the movie Truman Show, I think a lot about the reality about the media recently. In fact, I know exactly this movie was to express an ironic effect by black humor. However, the film hit let me on media authenticity has many thoughts. Now the media, false information too much, especially newspapers and television, make people interested in reducing, even trust also reduced. Network of false information is the same. In order to better attract the audience or reader, the authenticity of media is very important, just like The Truman Show.

Key words: Truman Show; Reality; Media

I.Truman Show

Truman always feels he has been under surveillance.He didn’t think it was true. Since he were born during the first thirty years, Truman Bobbin most for a long time, there is the history of the most popular documentary soap opera actor, he is an ideal living town sea town is actually a huge studio, and his relatives and friends and before him every day people are all actors in the hidden throughout the occupation photographic lens. This is the “The Truman Show “, the global hundreds of millions of viewers was watching his every act and every move, and he himself does not know. Then after thirty years of drift life, Truman finally felt that his life was something wrong, when he discovers he is like living in a glass jar butterfly, he decided to escape from the sea town, regardless of the cost. But he must face the “The Truman Show” founder, producer and director Christophe, and overcome his deepest fear, can break through the barriers to get freedom.

Of course, after watching the film, I had a pity for Truman, his all life was false by director, and he knew nothing about this. However, it was popular in the film. The film comes from the real life; this success in audience ratings gives me an important enlightenment at the media.

II the reasons for the Truman Show popular

In the movie, the soap opera Truman’s world is loved all over the world is because Truman to film it know nothing at all, natural deduction. The true man show, as another self. In the Truman body, the audience can see the shadow of themselves including their birth, their love, and the first kiss. Truman sadness and happiness seemed so real, real as occurring in the audience themselves, can cause the audience response and love. Truman’s world in the film popular reason is — true.Of course, the real is cruel, for it hurts the pure man. However, it caused my attention to the authenticity of media is very important.

III.The reality is the life of the media

First, we must understand, this is a lack of attractive age because too much information. TV programs from the people’s life, let people feel the resonance. Naturally, it is unable to attract the attention of the people. No matter how to perform, there has to be a real existence in order to better attract the audience. The newspaper is even more the case, these years, our newspaper, false news, advertising increases; make people getting away with it. In recent years, the network became popular, but the network is too much false information also hinders the further development of network. From the film, we can see, people for the authenticity of the call. Then, the media should do to improve their authenticity?

In order to enhance the authenticity, made the audience, the film Truman Show gives us the following enlightenment: one is the reality of characters. In the movie Truman is a born alive in the boy, he really exist, this character not fiction, his life and our life is not much different, and thus more likely to attract the attention of the audience. Therefore, in the media of authenticity, either in TV or film to create a character, or the real figures, media workers must pay attention to ordinary people, ordinary people get inspiration from. The lives of ordinary people can move the audience or reader, because, like we see another me. In addition, emotional authenticity. Truman every emotion so real, his family, his love, his grief and joy are so natural. Now a lot of TV programs like sensational, like with exaggerated reality to let the audience tears. In fact, the true feelings can cause the hearts of the audience resonance. Not everyone’s life is very strange, more and more people’s life is very ordinary. However, they are eager to be of concern, as their true feelings in the media embodiment, wanted they don’t care about the difficulty.

Watching the real life by the director, we had to mention news. Now the news authenticity was questioned, much news can even be director. As everyone knows, authenticity is the most important news soul. In the news, in order to Truman true, but not like the Truman’s life was director. There is advertising, the ads are everywhere, but also a very exaggerated. Of course, exaggeration is advertising a means of performance, but if you really want to impress the audience must also be true. Only to meet the demands of consumers, the consumers can be remembered and the purchase of. The film tells us, authenticity is the important way to attract.

In recent years, the media authenticity call more and more, people for the authenticity of media attention began to strengthen. Now a lot of domestic television stations have started to do some civilian program, started to pay attention to ordinary people’s real life, and has made very good progress. However, these civilians programs in many fictional events or the audience. The film Truman Show told us, does not need the imaginary of ordinary people, real life and emotion is enough to attract people.

IV.Conclusion

Life is not a drama, Truman story can only appear in the movie, and we have great sympathy for him. However, in this film, the protagonist to Truman hit television series gave us deep enlightenment. In this view, we present the media to be learned from this movie important element of success — real. Whenever we are, authenticity is the life of the media, especially the lack of attention; we have to know, the more real, the more popular. Without the reality, the media will lose the charm for us; Truman Show also tells us this simple truth.

Notes:

The film Truman Show

2 Daniel. Dai Yang, Elisha Kats, media event [M] Beijing: Beijing Broadcasting Institute press, 2003:3

3 McGuire, audience analysis [M] Beijing: Renmin University of China press, 2006:90

4 Chen Lidan. What is communication [M]. Beijing: Peking University Press, 2007:178

Bibliography¼š

[1]The film Truman Show

[2] Liu Xuefeng. On news authenticity principle of multiple levels of understanding of [J]. Reading and writing, 2009, (02)

[3]Bian Jian. From the ” The Truman Show ” to see media Pseudo Environment groups imbalance ( J ) – Movie Review, 2008 ( 02).

[4]Guo Yonghong true absurdity and refuses to escape — on the film ” The Truman Show ” philosophical anatomy ( J ). Appreciation, 2009 ( 18)

[5] Xing Runmei movie ” The Truman Show ” and mass media literary interpretation ( J ). Journal of Shanxi Normal University ( SOCIAL SCIENCE EDITION ), 2008 ( S1 ).

Ethics Of Sex Appeal In Advertising Media Essay

This treatise puts forward the reality that advertisements with sexual undertones are remembered over and over again than advertisements that are not. The question to ask though is, how ethical is it to make use of sexual appeals in advertisements? And does sex really sells? Social comparison theory as instigated in 1954 by Festinger is used as the theoretical scaffold in this study as this premise states that individuals who have a longing to appraise their views, judgments and abilities can be satisfied by social comparisons with other people. At the end of this write-up, it attempts to recommend to media and advertising practitioners, that they need to apprise the audience who will be viewing their ads before putting sexual innuendos into their respective advertisement pieces; that they need to recognize the moral intricacy of sexual appeal in advertising and integrate that understanding in their strategic thought and when designing their commercial pieces. Quoting Henthorne and LaTour, (1994) as saying that, “as the ethical considerations of society change over time, what is considered appropriate and acceptable in advertising must also change” (p.88). Therefore, this study shares the idea of how imperative it is to incessantly reassess what society would consider suitable and consider the full level of consequences of their actions before advertising practitioners start considering what they make out as ethically acceptable.

Introduction

“Every media consumer is alert to sex in advertising. Its pervasive use and misuse are constantly before us, and typically elicit strong criticism” (Richmond and Hartland, 1982, p.53). As anyone can see, the employment of sex in advertising has been in our midst for several decades and the reason for it? – It works. Advertisements with sexual undertones are remembered over and over again than advertisements that are not. The question to ask though is, how ethical is it to make use of sexual appeals in advertisements?

“Does sex sell?” Actually, sex does not sell, but sexiness does (Cebrzynski, 2000, p. 14). By means of sex appeals in advertising is a good way to aim at specific market segments but not all. Questions like — what is identified as sexual appeals in advertising? Where and when should sex be used? Does the use of sexual appeals lead to an advantage for brand remembrance? — must be addressed exhaustively.

Sex and the Media

Today, sex permeates advertising in the United States and in many countries all over the world as contemporary society is extremely fixated with the demonstration of sex in the media as never before. The issue of whether sex sells could be countered by screening the massive quantities of billboards and classified ads which integrate some form of sex appeal or nudity (Pynor, 2004, p. 42). Several reasons have been provided with the use of sexually oriented themes, among them are to achieve product and brand attention, recognition, recall, and sales (Alexander and Judd, 1978, p. 47). Observably, sex is utilized to sell a wide array of products — from cars to fashion products, and is meant to attract not only the male customers, but female, consumers as well.

The employment of sex as an instrument in advertising can be traced back to the 1800s when the advertising industry noticed the beneficial effect of using degrees of sexuality in their advertising drives. These economic gains include – above all else – an increase in revenue due to the point of difference that sexual schemes provide for the product. Sometimes, the use of sex also affords shock-value that frequently triggers social debate and helps in the product promotion’s continuing recall. Author of The Erotic History of Advertising Tom Reichert has this to say — “Many real-life examples from the 1800s to the present exist to suggest that it has worked, and does work, to inflame not only consumers’ libidos but their motivations and desires to make purchases. In some cases, sex in advertising contributes to the building of strong, vibrant and long-lasting brands” (Reichert, 2003, p. 9). As it is, the incessant use of sex in advertising from the 1800s until these days is a demonstration of the fact that it is an effective tool that works for advertisers.

Literature Review

Sex Appeal in Advertising

Advertising is “one of the most prolific and all-encompassing forms of communication in the world” (Reichert, 2003, p.20). This type of ‘company to customer’ communication lifts several concerns about the ethics of advertising because its practice is very convincing and powerful (Treise and Weigold, 1994). Advertising has turned to become an excellent way for business firms to create a positive image for them and for the public to easily adapt to such image. Image creation is a public relations approach that has increasingly aimed young adults and teens because they are not interested on conventional direct advertising (Goodman and Dretzin, 1999), obviously, advertisers target the demographic group of young adults and teens because they account for a huge amount of American consumer spending.

The practice of utilizing sex appeal in advertising is nothing new. Sexual images (nudity) can be found in advertisements as far back as the late 1800s and in the early 1900s, it was used to sell soaps, perfumes and creams. These advertisements claimed to transform any woman to become sexier for a man’s pleasure and as sex advertising boomed in the 40s and 50s, controversy abound.

Until today, a lot of business enterprises find sex appeal as an effective tactic in advertising. When Maidenform bras began to use models with their shirts off, it became the number one bra company and when Jovan fragrance used sexuality to sell its product, company revenues soared from $1.5 million to $77 million in just seven years (Reichert, 2003).

In a 1981 study conducted by Reid and Soley, advertisements were more likely to be appealing and immediately recognized if an attractive endorse is used (Severn and Belch, 1990). In another survey, 32% of consumers confessed that there is strong likelihood of them buying a product if it uses an advertisement with strong sexual undertones (Fetto, 2001).

Capitalizing on the idea of sex appeal, people sell their products with the notion that such product is for sexy people and to own that specific product can make any person sexy. Such sexiness can be depicted through the clothes being worn, the models poses, the lighting being used in the advertisement, positioning of the models or in their facial expressions, location used, and interaction. Likewise, companies employ this idea to connect the company image with allure and prestige. As it is, sexuality associates brands with sexual activities and increased attractiveness, something desired by consumers (Reichert, 2001/2003).

Although the argument that wanton sexual appeals generate off-putting results because of perceptions of disreputable and scheming practices is basic and extremely valid, it also assumes a deliberative, cognitive mechanism. Past research investigations have found that the process of judging whether a persuasive message infringes ethical standards or not demands cognitive effort (Campbell and Kirmani, 2000). Yet end users characteristically spend little time and effort when viewing an ad (Sengupta and Gorn, 2002; Burnett and Moriarty 1998; Kassarjian, 1977). Hence, it is imperative to understand reactions to improper sex appeals under “thin slice” processing (Ambady, Bernieri, and Richeson, 2000), such as when consumers view ads under constricted cognitive capacity. Without a doubt, unstructured, spur-of-the-moment, uncontrolled responses may be quite different from more cautiously considered responses in the sphere of sex-based advertising.

Recent research by Sengupta and Dahl (2008) examined non-deliberative reactions to the gratuitous use of sex in advertising. Men and women in these experiments were placed under high cognitive load while viewing an ad that showed an unequivocal sexual image and a nonsexual image. Unlike previous research that has found that both men and women abhor the gratuitous use of sex in advertising, a gender difference surfaced under constrained conditions, that is, men preferred more the advertisement containing a sexual image (compared to the nonsexual image) whereas women reported considerably adverse mind-sets toward the overtly sexual ad compared to the nonsexual advertisement.

Basically, sexual imagery sets off an emotional response or reaction. “In other words, viewers are, all things being equal, favorably energized by sexual information” (Reichert, 2007, p. 6). With this in mind, advertising organizations employ sex in several different ways to try and convince and influence end users to purchase a product. “Individuals seek out and are willing to pay for sexual content in mainstream media” (Reichert, 2007, p. 7), an example of this reality is the sale in millions of copies of Cosmopolitan and Maxim each month. These magazines’ ads have become more competitive and risqué due to the idea that an ad needs to be noticeable and must draw attention. “Some advertisers may push the boundaries of acceptable sexual content because of direct competitive pressure. Certain product marketers utilize a higher proportion of sexual appeals than other marketers because of the nature of the product and the relevance of sex to product benefits” (Reichert and Carpenter, 2004).

Another approach being used to draw customer attention is the idea that upon purchasing a product, such will make the buyer more sexually attractive, or can have more sex or can have a better sex life (Reichert, 2007), thus, people who are seeking for such qualities are more likely to pay for a product if the ads are sexually evocative.

Gender Expression, Sexuality and Advertising

This rather outmoded depiction of gender and expression of sexuality continues to be exploited in modern-day advertisements principally because it is an unbeaten prescription that brings in financial incentive and this will continue as long as women believe – even if only for a brief moment – that acquiring the advertised product will bring them one step closer to attaining the unattainable. As what was pointed out: “those who are dissatisfied with their looks, their bodies, their status, make great consumers” (Lee, 2003, p. 134). Furthermore, Nancy Etcoff (2000) sums it up well: “to tell people not to take pleasure in beauty is like telling them to stop enjoying food or sex or novelty or love.” This is an impracticable likelihood because to like and to want is instinctive in human character. Advertisers are intensely conscious of this as they create advertisements filled with representations of dazzling, extremely sensuous women.

Women as Primary Focus?

For many decades, numerous people believed that women are the major focus of sex appeals employed in advertising, however, this is not necessarily correct. It is true that women look as if they are the target most recognized in sexual appeals, but men have been targeted more recently.

If women have often been the targets of sexual advertising, it is because it appears to work in many cases. As it is, sex is a potent and a convenient method of obtaining male attention and making a product desirable and in advertising, it is easy to get a man’s attention by using women’s bodies and associate it to the idea of “getting the women as well” if he buys the product (Taflinger, 1996, p.8). The most well known target of women as sexual appeals has been in beer commercials. Usually the ads go something like this — a beautiful woman is sitting at a bar and a man comes up and she does not notice him at all. Then he orders a certain kind of beer and all of the sudden, he is desirable to this woman. They then get caught up in the moment and ultimately the man gets this woman (because of the beer). Another example of the man getting the hot woman because of a particular product that supposedly makes the man more desirable to the women is the AXE advertisement. AXE is a body spray for men. In the commercial, the men who use AXE get beautiful women. In fact, AXE is so effective that if in any way you come in contact with this body spray, you will be instantly wanted. There is also a commercial which features an old man getting a young, hot woman because of the AXE effect.

Women are exploited repeatedly in advertising as sex appeals. But, some do not become conscious that these advertisements are often aimed at women as well. Victoria’s Secret is a classic example of this. Advertisers obviously want women to think that if they purchase Victoria’s Secret products, they could look like those stunning, sexy endorsers on the commercials seen on television or in the print ads. Obviously, these bra and panties are not going to look very good on just anyone, however, at first glance, a woman could think, “wow, she looks splendid; I should get that outfit so I can look that good too.”

In truth, women are not the only focus in sexual appeal advertising. Men play a huge part as well. According to Taflinger (1996), “It is rare for advertising to use sex as an appeal for women. Women are often less interested in the sex act itself for its own sake. They are interested in sex for what it can mean in the future. They may enjoy it as much as men, but for them it has far greater significance. Advertising cannot take advantage of a woman’s instinctive sexual desire because advertising’s job is not to build for the future-it is to sell a product now” (p. 6). Here, Taflinger attempts to elucidate the fact that women are not interested in sexual appeals on television, rather, they are interested in sex for their future. Although this seems to be correct in some instances, it is questionable when thinking about all of the ads that target men as the sex selling object.

Sex Appeal and Product Branding

Sex in advertising can also produce positive mind-sets and sentiments about the ad or product brand. Using catchphrases are huge in the industry along with sexual overtones. A popular example is Las Vegas’s tagline “what happens here, stays here” (Reichert, 2007). This is very indicative and interesting; people want to go to Vegas so they can find out for themselves what it’s all about.

Sex in advertising is controversial and it is vital to reflect on consumers’ outlooks and points of view. While many feel there is too much sex in advertising (Treise and Weigold, 1994), most people feel that if sexual commercials are crafted with relevance and aptness, these are more likely to be accepted (Gould, 1994; Treise and Weigold, 1994). Innately, concerns and apprehensions crop up when sex appeal usage are viewed by unintended (Gould, 1994). Similar disquiet appears when advertisers target teens and young adults with these advertisements. There are concerns that these advertisements are venerated by young people and teach these young adults improper conduct (Reichert, 2001). Negative facets of this target audience advertising consist of women idolizing the sexual models being used to endorse a product and compare themselves to the advertisements (Gould, 1994). In a survey, 55.2% of respondents agreed sexual advertisements influence a teen’s decision to be sexually active (Treise and Weigold, 1994). However, the idea in advertising is give and take; the media learns from teens and teens learn from the media (Goodman and Dretzin, 1999). One cannot exclusively say who manipulates whom, so much so that even though end user’s anxieties arise, sex continues to be used as an powerful advertising approach.

Reichert and Carpenter found that the level of sexual advertisements has remained constant from 1993 and 2003; the only thing that had increased was the female’s level of dressing as it has become more provocative and sometimes offensive (2004, p. 828).

It is fascinating to note that some research investigations found the degree of sexuality actually increased over time. Reichert and Carpenter (2004) conducted an extension of a study that evaluated the degree of sex in 1983 and 1993. Magazine advertisements particularly were content analyzed from 2003 and compared with the issues of the previous years. The general outcomes signified that women not only persisted to be represented in a sexual manner, but that the degree of sexuality increased over time. For instance, advertising became extensively more overt from 1983 to 2003 and clothing (or lack of it as the case may be) largely contributed to this. Results revealed that in 1983 only 28% of female models wore sexually explicit clothes. This rose by 75% in 2003 when 49% of models were dressed in sexual attire. Thus, in 2003 virtually half of the models featured were shown with less rather than more clothing — to be exact, in 2003 almost 4 out of 5 women who appeared in ads were suggestively dressed, partially clad, or nude (Reichert and Carpenter, 2004)). Moreover, the images of women that were most sexually explicit were featured in men’s magazines. As Linder (2004) found, general interest magazines, such as Time contained the least degree of sexualized images, when compared with magazines aimed predominantly at men and women.

The increase of sexuality over time could be associated with the likeness of products that are available today. It is presumed that in 1983 there was not such an immense collection of products available on the market, and therefore did not need to be distinguished from each other to such a great degree. Furthermore, in those years, advertisers were rendered inadequate by the capability of computer graphic technologies. This is definitely not the case today and advertisers frequently resort to stimulating images to make a distinction between similar products. Particularly, according to Reichert and Carpenter, specific merchandise are promoted in a more sexual manner due to the character of the product, such as fragrance and clothing (although clothing is also often used as a means to sexualize other products).

Theoretical Framework

People are continuously evaluating themselves with others and this is certainly no exception when addressing advertising, particularly among women. According to Stapel and Blanton (2004), an important source of self-knowledge comes from other people. Human beings maintain a sense of who they are by contrasting their own capabilities and characteristics to other people. This so-called social comparison theory was instigated in 1954 by Festinger, who hypothesized that individuals have a longing to appraise their views, judgments and abilities that can be satisfied by social comparisons with other people.

Using this premise as a scaffold, many studies have been carried out, predominantly in reference to females which raise the question — does advertising take advantage of consumer tendencies to alter their body or image of themselves by creating anxieties and discontent with the self?

Relative to its effect on adolescent girls which Martin and Gentry (1997) studied, the answer is yes, advertisers especially of young fashion magazines do exploit this mindset among adolescent girls, who evaluate their physical beauty with that of models in the advertisements. Martin and Gentry’s study has proven that, consistent with the social comparison theory, female pre-adolescents’ and adolescents’ self-perceptions and self-esteem can be destructively impinged on when self-evaluation takes place. Other studies have suggested that advertising can have a vital role in creating and highlighting a fixation with physical charm (Downs and Harrison, 1985), and may manipulate consumers’ awareness of what is an adequate level of physical attractiveness (Martin and Kennedy, 1993).

This conception of advertisers taking advantage of consumers’ perception of themselves is unswervingly associated with sex appeal in advertising. Recently, advertisers have endeavored into a contentious area with their use of female sexual images and a focus on distinct body parts, language and sex-role portrayals. These advertisers are profoundly conscious that sex appeal in an advertisement has the capacity to exert a pull on women on the premise of social comparison. In a study conducted by Craik, Clarke, and Kirkup (1998), women who were sensitive of stereotypes and were even aware of the spuriousness of the industry still desperately want to imitate these images. Such is the explanation why advertisers reportedly pay huge amounts of money every year to have their products endorsed by alluring and well-admired women, since their beauty or personality is assumed to add dazzle to the products they promote (Langmeyer and Shank, 1994).

Recommendations

For media and advertising practitioners, it is important to apprise the audience who will be viewing the ads before putting sexual innuendos into the advertisement piece. Advertisers need to recognize the moral intricacy of sexual appeal in advertising and integrate that understanding in their strategic thought and when designing their commercial pieces. As what Henthorne and LaTour, (1994) stated, “as the ethical considerations of society change over time, what is considered appropriate and acceptable in advertising must also change” (p.88). Hence, it is imperative to incessantly reassess what society would consider suitable and consider the full level of consequences of their actions before considering for what they make out as ethically acceptable.

A Case Study On Its Strategies Marketing Essay

Changing lifestyles, in the form of the rise in nuclear families and double income households has encouraged the growth of pet ownership specially dogs in urban areas of India. The pet humanisation trend, whereby owners treat pets like family members and are willing to spend money on goods and services to keep them healthy and happy, continued to underpin the development of India’s pet food and pet care products market in 2009. Growth in the number of single-person households and the ageing of the Indian population also contributed to the positive development of the market, with many single and older people adopting pets for companionship. Pet owners have started taking interest in their pet’s diet, health and grooming. A gradual shift from home cooked food towards prepared pet food has been observed. Pet owners are more than willing to spend on pet food and pet care products than ever before. Mars Inc. is an enigma, a mystery tied up inside in a bright candy wrapper. Its pet food business segment, the biggest in the world at about $30 billion in annual sales, has been bleeding money in the U.S. and had has a slow-down in Europe, even in strongholds such as Germany, where Mars has had an incredible 80% market share. The company’s new-product-development record is dismal, and the lack of new hit products is inhibiting growth. Mars has long been fanatical about its quality control and manufacturing efficiency -such as the human’s taste-the test for the pet food – but there are no miracles left in process technology. Mars is the worst, most feared company in the business — totally unpredictable, capable of anything.

Keywords: Pet-food, Mars Inc., Pets companionship, Lifestyle

Introduction

Mars, Incorporated is a worldwide manufacturer of confectionery, pet food and other food products with US$ 30 billion in annual sales for 2008, and it was ranked as the 6th largest privately-held company by John Mars and Forrest Mars Jr. in the United States by Forbes. Its Headquarters are in McLean, unincorporated Fairfax County, Virginia, USA.

Mars operates in six business segments in the U.S. – Chocolate, Petcare, Wm. Wrigley Jr. Company, Food, and Drinks & Symbioscience. In India, the company operates in two business segments mainly, Petcare and Chocolates

Mars is guided by its Five Principles namely, Quality, Responsibility, Mutuality, Efficiency and Freedom.

Mars is the world’s third largest food manufacturer, after Nestle.

Mars is the world’s leading confectionery company, following its acquisition of the Wm. Wrigley Jr. Company in 2008, with billion-dollar brands M&M’S®, SNICKERS®, DOVE ®, MARS ®, EXTRA ® and ORBIT ®.

Mars has more than 70,000 associates working at over 230 sites, including 135 factories, in approximately 68 countries worldwide.

Iconic global brands of MARS over the world are:

• Mars Chocolate: M&M’S®, SNICKERS®, DOVE®, GALAXY®, MARS®, MILKY WAY® and TWI

• Mars Petcare: PEDIGREE®, WHISKAS®, SHEBA®, CESAR® and ROYAL CANIN®

• Wrigley Gum and Confections: EXTRA®, ORBIT®, DOUBLEMINT®, SKITTLES®, STARBURST® and ALTOIDS®

• Mars Food: UNCLE BEN’S®, DOLMIO®, SEEDS OF CHANGE®, EBLY® and MASTERFOODS®

• Mars Drinks: KLIX® and FLAVIA®

• Mars Symbioscience: WISDOM PANELTM MX, SERAMIS®, and COCOAPROTM

Three of the brands are more than 100 years old: ALTOIDS®, JUICY FRUIT® and SPEARMINT®.

Seven of the brands are more than 50 years old: MILKY WAY®, SNICKERS®, MARS®, M&M’S®, DOUBLEMINT®, UNCLE BEN’S®, and WHISKAS®.

Pedigree®, the world No. 1 dog food, with more than 70 years experience behind them, PEDIGREE helps make sure that the man’s best friend stays fit, healthy and happy. There’s a Pedigree meal for every size and shape of dog.

Historical Background

In 1935, Mars Limited was renamed as Mars Confectionery and it acquired Chappel Brothers Ltd, (CHAPPIE ®) UK – based canned dog Food Company beginning its long association with top quality pet foods by marketing Chappie dog food.

In 1939, Cat food, KITEKAT ® was first advertised in UK.

In 1951, Chappie Ltd. manufacturing was shifted to Melton Mowbray, UK.

In 1954, PAL ® food for dogs entered the UK market under the name of MEET ®.

In 1957, Chappie Ltd. was renamed to Pedigree Petfoods Ltd.

In 1958, WHISKAS ® food for cats was launched in UK.

In 1959, MEET ® was renamed as PAL ®.

In 1960, CHUM ® dog food was launched in UK.

In 1964, CHUM ® dog food is rebranded to PEDIGREE CHUM ® and it was a beginning to its long standing association with Crufts Dog Show in UK. Silbury Soames is the first dog to be fed on PEDIGREE CHUM ® to win the Best in the Show Award.

In 1965, Waltham Centre for Pet Nutrition was established in United Kingdom to identify the dietary needs, preferences and behaviour of pet animals. This knowledge was then applied to the products to better satisfy the needs of the pet animals.

In 1967, The Uncle Ben’s of Australia pet food business was established in Wodonga, Australia.

In 1968, Kal Kan Petfoods was acquired in USA, and Mars started its association with the American dog and cat owners and their pets.

In 1977, all senior / general managers worldwide met in Easton, Maryland and formulized the Five Principles.

In 1982, SHEBA ® cat food was launched in Hamburg, Germany, in exclusive aluminium tray format, delivering exquisite food to cats. Small dogs were offered their opportunity for dining two years later with the launch of CESAR ® dog food.

In 1983, the first “Five Principles of Mars” booklet was published and distributed globally across the Corporation.

In 1987, FROLIC ® dog food was launched in Brazil. Two years later followed by PEDIGREE ® dog food and then WHISKAS ® cat food.

In 1991, PEDIGREE SELECT DINNERS ® dog food was launched and later renamed as CESAR ® dog food for small dogs.

In 2001, Royal Canin Petfoods was purchased by Mars and this leading French brand of nutritious pet-food was introduced globally.

In 2007, NUTRO ® Pet-foods was welcomed into Mars stable of leading pet-food brands.

Waltham Centre for Pet Nutrition

The WALTHAM® Centre for Pet Nutrition is the major hub of the global research activities for Mars, where they work with the dogs, cats, fish, birds and horses.

In collaboration with the global scientific institutes, the unique team of carers, scientists and research staff have supported the leading Mars brands such as Whiskas®, Pedigree®, Trill®, Cesar®, Sheba®, Kitekat®, Aquarian®, Winergy® and Royal Canin®.

The team in these years has pioneered some of the most important breakthroughs in pet nutrition, and has shared the results of the Centre’s research in more than 1,500 publications, and regular communication with scientific and pet care communities.

By developing products that have been constantly improving nutrition and care, they have helped the world’s pets to live healthier and happier lives.

Waltham® Centre for Pet Nutrition, today, is the world’s leading authority on pet care and nutrition because their science cares…

• the investment of the centre into pet-care and well-being, provides better and more relevant science

• because their way of working, they have stimulated innovative solutions to research problems

• because their research has been published in high impact journals

They are having a lasting positive impact on the health and care of pets across the world.

Strategic Management of PEDIGREE, MARS Inc.

Mars has expanded through acquisitions. Through the years, Mars has acquired the most successful brands of pet food across the globe. Their strategy of global expansion has been finding the converts to its brands in new country after country globally. The company with aggressive marketing, along with acquisitions, has increased both its market share as well as its profits in a flat market.

The acquisition of Doane by Mars has been an important part of their strategy to strengthen and grow their Pet care business in North America and the addition of Doane’s U.S. operation, they will provide production capacity to accelerate their innovation pipeline and operating flexibility to better respond to their customers’ needs, said Bob Gamgort, North American President for Mars.

The combination of Mars’ brands, science and innovation with the supply chain excellence of the acquired brands has significantly improved Mars’ business performance and competitive position. This has created a more efficient, geographically distributed network which has enabled Mars to respond more rapidly to shifts in the consumer demand and customer needs.

In 1964, Forrester’s primary act was to destroy the fancy corporate surroundings, and since then, Mars has been practicing an open-office policy for everyone.

“Mars has built a culture that can only be described as every man for himself.”

Indeed, there are no private offices. The desks are arrayed from the centre of the floor in the descending order of ranks through their “zones” of management – the lower- ranking zone fives are typically the brand managers, while the zones one and two are accorded to the senior executives. The company does not have special parking spaces or executive dining rooms, or washrooms at any of their locations.

Competitors are afraid of Mars as they are witnessing a work of a strategic genius or the mad-scientist owners that have let the business slide as they chase their dreams of global conquest, which really is the way of how they capitalize on opportunities.

Food and beverages industry

The food and beverages industry is one of the largest marketplaces in the world. Huge corporations with well known brand names dominate the food and beverages sector, but there is still plenty of room for growing businesses to pursue high yield opportunities and carve out their piece of the pie.

Traditionally, the dinning patterns and dinning customs of people differ across the globe. The time, at which different meals are taken, the quantity, preferred tastes, etc… have significant differences in different countries. Yet, breakfast is considered to be an important meal in all regions whether their other meals are lunch and supper (evening meal) or lunch and dinner.

The importance of starting the day with breakfast is well recognized. Recent research has identified that children who skip breakfast have more difficulty in paying attention in the classroom, cannot remember new information, do not do as well at problem-solving and may not even talk as well as children who eat breakfast.

Even though the importance of breakfast is well recognized, research studies also have found out many people are not in the habit of eating breakfast at all, or eat it only occasionally. This situation is evident in Australia as well. The main reasons for not eating breakfast is to save time and because the breakfast skippers do not feel like eating in the morning.

The purpose of developing the TILBURGERS’ breakfast shake is to target the breakfast skippers who want to save time and who do not feel like eating traditional breakfast in the morning.

Why should -TILBURGERS- diversify to a breakfast shake?

At TILBURGERS I have specialized in health food since 1940. Even before healthy living became fashionable I were committed to it and thus, I have accumulated much expertise and a fine reputation among consumers and retailers as producers of quality health food. Range of ready-to-eat food that contain Lo-Krim and or Lo sweet natural substitutes for fresh cream and sugar respectively are extremely popular in the market. Existing product range is targeted at regular breakfast eaters who are health conscious, where I followed a niche market strategy.

To seek growth opportunities, in order to enhance the sustainability of the business and also in order to exploit expertise and strong reputation, this marketing plan proposes a multi segmenting approach that targets different segments with different products (Existing product range is targeted at regular breakfast eaters and the new breakfast shake is targeted at breakfast skippers).

Identification of Key Success Factors (KSF) for the new product: TILBURGERS breakfast shake.

In order to ensure the success of the new product – TILBURGERS’ breakfast shake- the following key success factors were identified. Close attention must be paid to the following key success factors.

Product Specific:

  • Quality of process & product.
  • Freshness at serve-time.
  • Variety of tastes & preferences.

Distribution:

  • Fast delivery (To retailers).
  • Optimum delivery costs.

Organizational:

  • Strong Corporate branding and product branding.

Manufacturing related:

  • Low cost production.
  • Quality of manufacturing.

Marketing related:

  • Smart advertising/promotions covering the target segments.

Thus, new product TILBURGERS’ Breakfast Shake seeks to target the market segment “breakfast skippers” that I believe are underserved and develop a long standing market by concentrating on the above key success factors.

Chapter 02: Analysis:

In order to analyse the suitability of TILBURGERS’ breakfast shake, a SWOT analysis, a PEST analysis and a 5-forces analysis are presented.

SWOT Analysis:

In order to identify the strengths and weaknesses of the company along with the opportunities and threats a SWOT analysis is conducted below.

Strengths:

  • Industry expertise.
  • Reputation among consumers & retailers (Goodwill).
  • Strong relationship with the retailers.
  • The retailers PUSH strategy to TILBURGERS products.
  • Strong Corporate Branding: TILBURGERS family brand name.
  • The patented & trademarked ingredients.
  • The ingredients are natural substitutes to sugar and cream.
  • Excess Capacity.
  • Innovative Products.
  • The characteristics of the TILBURGERS breakfast shake suits the target market requirements.

Weaknesses:

  • Not using proper advertising mechanism.
  • Making decision without real research.
  • Not present in the mainstream market.

Opportunities:

A market segment that has no been catered: Research indicates that 8% of the Australians do not eat breakfast at all while another 34% skip breakfast at some point during the working week. The reasons for skipping breakfast are to save time and because the breakfast skippers do not feel like eating.

A product like TILBURGERS’ breakfast shake that has just been developed can cater to this market. At the same time TILBURGERS’ breakfast shake will ensure the presence of TILBURGERS in the mainstream market that is currently gaining popularity.

Threats:

  • Perception that breakfast drinks are not a complete breakfast.
  • Threat of substitutes.
  • Threat of competition.
  • Less customer loyalty in the mainstream markets.
  • Product cannibalization.
  • Health food stores withdrawing from the TILBURGERS products.
  • Risk of diversification.

Five Forces Analysis:

Threat of competition:

Major players such as Kelloggs, Uncle Tobys and Sanitarium have failed to focus on the breakfast skippers. Even though there have been some new versions of traditional cereals such as Uncle Toby’s breakfast bars introduced, these have done little to alter the eating habits of the breakfast skippers. Or in other words these products have failed to attract and retain the breakfast skippers.

Even though TILBURGERS will have to compete with these products, since it is an unique product of its kind that matches the requirements of its target market -the breakfast skippers- more than any other product TILBURGERS have an advantage over these brands in this market segment.

But somewhat similar milk products, such as MILO have been introduced to the market in recent times and they have gained popularity to some extent. But since our bodies are conditioned to feel full after having solid, in the society breakfast drinks are seldom regarded as full breakfast even though it has been advertised as full breakfast.

But since TILBURGERS is a product that has the thick consistency of a milk shake it is a filling product and thus has an advantage over other milk drinks such as Milo.

Therefore, in terms of competition TILBURGERS is in a favorable position.

Threat of Substitutes:

The cereal products can be thought as substitutes to some extent and as a result there would be threats of substitutes from major players such as Kelloggs, Uncle Tobys and Sanitarium.

Consumers have been skeptical about the nutritional value of the cereal brands in the recent times and as a result they have started to look down at the cereal products in the market. Even though cereal products have been enjoying steady growth in demand after people started moving away from the traditional cooked breakfasts, in the very recent times there has been a decline in the demand for them as a result of the doubts related to nutritional values. Retailers have also shown dissatisfaction about devoting much shelf space for a declining product category.

There are many other substitutes varying from traditional cooked breakfast to cereal. But in the target market of breakfast skippers TILBURGERS breakfast shake has an added advantage since it exactly matches the requirements (time saving and not liking to eat in the morning). And thus, TILBURGERS is in a favorable position in terms of substitutes.

Bargaining power of suppliers:

The ingredients of the TILBURGERS breakfast shake are natural ingredients that are available. At the same time TILBURGERS has the patent over its ingredients and thus is in a favorable position in terms of the bargaining power of suppliers.

Threat from new entrants:

This industry needs a moderate amount of capital to enter in to, but even if new entrants enter in to the market since TILBURGERS has obtained the patents for the ingredients for a period of 20 years from year 2000, the products can not be copied. As a result TILBURGERS has the upper hand in terms of threats coming from substitutes and is in a favorable position.

Bargaining power of customers:

The target market for the breakfast shake is the breakfast skippers. Even though many products exist that they can actually try out TILBURGERS breakfast shake is a unique product that matches the requirements of the segment. Yet the customer loyalty for any food product in this segment is still low as they have been in the habit of skipping breakfast. Thus the bargaining power of buyers is moderate. The above 5-forces analysis conducted indicate that the industry is very much favorable to TILBURGERS breakfast shake. TILBURGERS is in a very good position to exploit this target market segment with the breakfast shake. The above PEST analysis and 5-Forces analysis indicate a favorable position for TILBURGERS to enter this market with the new product.

Chapter 03: Marketing Strategy:

It is a known fact that marketing is the function which can be directly identified as the prime income generation method of a company. The ability of income generation depends on the strength and success of the marketing strategy and the marketing objectives which emerge from the followed strategy. Wikipedia defines marketing strategy as “process that can allow an organization to concentrate its limited resources on the greatest opportunities to increase sales and achieve a sustainable competitive advantage.”

According to the research results I can identify that there exist an unexploited market segment of breakfast skippers (who always skip breakfast and who rarely skip breakfast) due to 2 reasons being time and personal preference to not eat breakfast. Thus, TILBURGERS’ breakfast shake which is an ideal breakfast for the people who skip breakfast due to the above two reasons will be introduced.

The current market strategy is a diversification strategy where the company will be introducing a new product to a new target market. At the same time it will operate its current product range. The current product range TILBURGERS’ Ready-to-Eat range will be offered to the regular breakfast eaters whereas the new product TILBURGERS’ breakfast shake will be offered to a different target market which is breakfast skippers. As a result with the introduction of the breakfast shake TILBURGERS will be following a multi segmenting target market strategy.

Product positioning:

The existing product range of TILBURGERS will be positioned as a healthy breakfast for the regular breakfast eaters. That is, the target market for the existing product range would be the regular breakfast eaters (e.g.: Baby boomers who are health conscious and who rarely miss breakfast, Elderly retired generation who have time to enjoy a leisurely breakfast). Therefore the promotion campaign for existing product range would be under the logo: “To keep you healthy… When you have the time!”

The existing product range will only be available at the health food stores.

The newly developed product the TILBURGERS’ Breakfast Shake will be positioned as a healthy breakfast for the breakfast skippers. The target market for the breakfast shake would be the breakfast skippers (e.g.:- Working population, school children, and other regular and occasional breakfast skippers). Therefore the promotion campaign for the TILBURGERS breakfast shake will be under the logos: “To keep you healthy… Because Mother loves you the most!” for the target market of school children and “To keep you healthy… Even when life gets too busy!” for the breakfast skippers.

Chapter 04: Marketing Objectives

Marketing Objectives statement presented below is a statement of what is to be accomplished through marketing activities. It is necessary for a business to establish a list of objectives so that strategy can be drafted to achieve these objectives. This is based on careful study of SWOT analysis which I have presented above.

Short Term Objectives:

  • Enter into agreements with the health food stores to promote TILBUTGERS breakfast shake in order for them to get incentives on the existing product range.
  • Complete the partnership formation with school canteens, office canteens and other mainstream outlets.
  • Enter into the contracts with suppliers of ingredients & packaging.
  • Conduct an aggressive promotional campaign for two months from commenced date.
  • Name 1st of December as the “TILBURGERS Day” and conduct a promotion program conducted by a sports star.

Long Term:

  • The long term objectives of the TILBURGERS is to build very strong brand equity and gain acknowledgement in all the market segments that targeting.
  • In 5 years time, TILBURGERS will be acknowledged as the preferred name among health conscious consumers as the manufacturer and distributor of Breakfast products in Australia with very strong brand equity.
  • TILBURGERS will open branches in other parts of Australia as necessary within 5- 7 years.
  • TILBURGERS will go through product & process reengineering to support changes in customers’ needs.
  • Chapter 05: The marketing Mix: 4Ps

    Product:

    The TILBURGERS’ breakfast shake comes under a diversification strategy as it is a new product that is still in the initial stage of the product life cycle and is being offered to a new market.

    Product specifications:

    The TILBURGERS’ breakfast shake is made out of a new product formula. The ingredients include soy bean, diary products and rice which are natural ingredients. It will have a high nutritional value as it will contain fiber, vitamins, calcium and carbohydrates. The main characteristics of the product include the following:

    • Nutritional
    • Made out of natural ingredients
    • High quality
    • Has the consistency of a thick milkshake and is therefore, filling
    • Convenient
    • Portable
    • Ready to drink
    • Available in different flavors: TILBURGERS’ breakfast shake will be available in different flavors. Vanilla, Chocolate and Strawberry flavors will be available. This will add a variety to the regular customers.
    • Standard size: 500ml

    Product Design:

    The TILBURGERS’ breakfast shake will be offered in a trendy “cup shaped” container. For different flavors the color of the container will change. The container will have a label with the TILBURGER corporate brand and TILBURGERS’ breakfast shake product brand.

    Packaging:

    In order to package the TILBURGERS’ breakfast shake a patented package will be used. This package will allow the breakfast shake to last up to 12 hours after opening and un-refrigerated. This special feature in the package would allow the drink to remain fresh and this will facilitate the target market who is otherwise breakfast skippers to consume the breakfast shake even while working.

    The packaging will ensure that the breakfast shake is portable so that it will be convenient for the consumer.

    The package will be in a shape that will facilitate easy and efficient storage. In retail outlets when storing the breakfast shake, the storage space will be used effectively because of the shape of the container.

    Information such as the manufacturing date, expiry date, ingredients, etc… will be printed on the label on the container.

    Price:

    Pricing is considered to be the most important component in the promotional mix. However, the non-existence of directly competing products (i.e. me-too type) allows TILBURGERS to have a much more freedom in setting up the price.

    Place:

    Place of availability is of utmost importance because that facilitates the product to reach its target market. TILBURGERS’ breakfast shake will be available at the;

    1. School canteens.
    2. Office canteens.
    3. Mainstream markets.
      • Small food outlets such as lunch bars, delis, sandwich shops, snack shops, etc…
      • Supermarkets.
    4. Health Food Stores.

    In all the above out lets the breakfast shake will be available at the same price TILBURGERS will set a maximum retail price. In order to ensure that the Health food store don’t see the TILBURGERS’ breakfast shake as competing product with TILBURGERS’ Ready-to-Eat range, the incentives given to the health stores on Ready-to-Eat range will be linked to the sales volumes of breakfast shake.

    In addition to the above locations the breakfast shake will be available in exhibitions, school sports meets, etc…

    Promotion Strategy:

    The promotion strategy of the TILBURGERS breakfast shake is a vital factor not only for the success of the newly developed breakfast shake but also for the existing product range of TILBURGERS. If the new product is not positioned and promoted properly that might act as a competitive product for the existing product range and as a result competition may be created among the two.

    The promotion strategy of the TILBURGERS would be a combination of a push and a pull strategy.

    Conclusion:

    From market analysis it has been found that an opportunity exist in developing a product for the breakfast skippers who skip breakfast to save time and because they dislike eating in the morning. In order to do this a SWOT analysis, and also a 5-forces analysis was carried out and since the analysis indicated that it is favorable to exploit this opportunity this marketing plan was developed.

    The newly developed product – TILBURGERS Breakfast shake – is a Nutritional drink that is made out of natural ingredients, that is of high quality, that has the consistency of a thick milkshake and is therefore, filling, convenient, portable and is in ready to drink form. This drink will be available in standard size: 500ml in different flavors.

    The report contains a marketing strategy for the introduction of the new product.

    The new product will be available in both mainstream market and health food stores and will be sold at a set maximum retail price at all outlets. The product will be promoted by using both a pull and a push strategy.

    A multi segment marketing strategy is proposed for TILBURGERS in this marketing plan where the importance of corporate branding and product branding is highlighted.

    Following the marketing plan presented above will lead the new product introduction project to success.

    References:

    Baker M. J.(1991) Marketing , An Introductory Text, (Fifth Edition) Macmillan Education Ltd, Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire.

    Cravens D.W. ,Lamb (Jr) C. W. (1983) Strategic Marketing Cases and Applications Richard D. Irwin Inc.

    Kotler P., Armstrong G.(1999), Principles of Marketing (Eighth Edition), Prentice Hall of India Pvt. Ltd New Delhi.

    Wilson R. M. S., Gilligan C.(1999) Strategic Marketing Management Planning, Implementation and Control, Viva Books Pvt. Ltd India.