An annotated bibliography list of all sources used in a person’s research, whether referenced or not. This list should contain the names of the author, the dates the copies were published, the page number of your sources if they are part of multi-source volumes, the names and the locations of companies that published your copies of the source’s title of the works. Each citation or source should be followed by a brief descriptive and evaluative paragraph, which is about 150 words, and that is the annotation. With the annotation, the reader is informed of the relevance, accuracy, and quality of the citations to documents, articles or books. This type of bibliography calls for a critical analysis on all the sources cited and then choosing the source that is the most relevant and that which provides a variety of perspectives on your topic. Then cite the source with the appropriate style followed by a concise annotation that summarizes the central theme and the scope of the source. Also include the authority and the background of the author, the intended audience, a contrast of this source with another one you have cited.
1. THC Hydra
THC Hydra is one of the powerful tools used by hackers for cracking passwords. The software tool is available for macOSX, Windows and Linux. The tool works online and uses both brute-force and dictionary to attack login pages. More so, THC Hydra is known for its fast network login hacking. The tool’s brute-force attack technique can raise the alarm of a security breach if there are security measures put in place on the targeted login page (WondorHow, 2020). For instance, the login pages may contain a maximum number of attempts beyond which the account may be disabled or locked. Brute-force works by guessing passwords to the login page. Thus, there is an increased chance that there will be excessive attempts on the login using brute-force.
THC Hydra is a build-in software in Kali Linux, and anyone using the operating system does not need to install it. However, the tool does not work alone but works together with other tools such as the “Tamper Data,” which is one of the plugins for Mozilla Firefox. The plugin produces essential information to be used by the Hydra tool, such as the HTTPS and HTTP POST and GET information. Tamper Data is simply a web proxy that is similar to the Burp Suite.
Once Tamper data is installed on the web browser and activated. We can navigate to our interesting website. The example below shows the navigation of the website of the Bank of America.
Tamper Data returns all critical information on the form, after trying to login to the site using “hacker” as the user name. The information is useful since it is used in Hydra to try cracking the passwords. Below is a screenshot of the information returned by Tamper Data.
Description of the Results Obtained
After obtaining the essential information from Tamper Data, we now go to Hydra to crack an online password. To open Hydra in Kali Linux, we go to Kali Linux, go-to password, and go to Hydra, then online attacks, as displayed on the screenshot below.
The Window below opens after clicking on online attacks ready to execute an attack on the online platform.
Kali Linux has several built-in pass wordlist that can be used to crack passwords. However, any password text file can be used, including downloaded. Change on the directory by typing this command “kali > cd /usr/share/wordlists”. Then list the contents of the directory by entering this command “kali > ls.” Below is the screenshot of the results displayed after typing the commands.
Next step, we want to use the tool to crack passwords. The screenshot below shows the values entered on the software terminal. We are using the tool to crack the admin password and at IP address 192.168.89.190 on port 80 as the target, using “rockyou.txt.”
Below is a screenshot of the results displayed
2. John, the Ripper
Just like the Hydra password cracking tool, John the Ripper is also used for cracking passwords using. However, the tool is used to crack both online and offline passwords, unlike HTC Hydra, which is used to crack online passwords only. John the Ripper is an old software tool and was first released in 1996 that was originally meant for the Unix-based systems (Blackmoreops, 2020). The tool was designed and created for establishing the strength of passwords and crack passwords via a dictionary attack. John the Ripper is one of the simplest and essential tools for penetration testing often used by hackers and information security personnel. More so, the tool comes in both a free and a proprietary version, with the proprietary version having some advanced features such as performance optimization, multilingual wordlists and supports 64-bit architecture. It was designed specifically for professional penetration testers.
Furthermore, John the Ripper supports several encryption technologies such as Window based systems and UNIX. The software autodetects the encryption contained on the hashed data, then checks through a large plain-text of files containing popular passwords in comparison. Once it finds a matching password, it stops. In addition to that, the software contains a wordlist of some commonly used passwords for more than twenty languages. The software can generate thousands of possible passwords with this list. However, when using Kali Linux, you don’t need to install John the Ripper since it is included among the penetration testing tools for Kali Linux. The tool contains encryption technologies for UNIX crypt, Kerberos, FreeBSD MD5-based and Traditional DES-based, Windows LM etc.
Information security personnel can devise ways of making it hard for hackers to penetrate systems using this tool in several ways. For example, the system information security personnel and system administrators must ensure that the system accounts use strong passwords. John the Ripper works to exploit weak passwords before carrying out an attack. More so, information security specialists should advise system developers to consider double authentication on their login interfaces. After entering the password, the system will send a One Time Password to the user’s phone to be allowed to access the system resources.
Description of the Results Obtained
After opening John the Ripper tool and getting the hashes, we can process an existing file using the awk command. The screenshot below shows the commands entered, and the results displayed.
Using the incremental mode to such for password cracks, the following result is obtained.
The above screenshot shows the number of passwords that have been found and cracked online.
One cannot think about a password cracking tool without having considered Rainbow Crack. Rainbow Crack is among the best and efficient password cracking tools used by information system security specialists for penetration testing. Hackers also take advantage of the tool and are not left behind but use the tool to crack passwords to perform an attack. RainbowCrack uses the brute-force technique to carry its operation. In addition to that, the tool uses rainbow tables, which make it very fast and efficient in cracking passwords. Furthermore, RainbowCrack is efficient because it doesn’t use the traditional brute-force but uses plain texts to compute the hashes.
For system security experts and administrators, they need to understand some of the ways they can protect the information system from this kind of attack from hackers. Firstly, to prevent password hacking, password policies must be strictly implemented, and weak passwords must not be allowed. System users must be advised to use strong passwords that would be hard for hackers to crack. Strong passwords are composed of a combination of characters such as numerical, alphanumerical, and upper and lower case letters. In addition to using strong passwords, the system developers should ensure a two-level authentication by the use of a password and a code sent to the email or telephone number of the system users.
Description of the results obtained
Below is a screenshot which shows RainbowCrack in use, trying to crack passwords.
This tool is specifically used to crack Windows login passwords using rainbow tables. The inventors of the method used rainbow tables to make the tool more efficient in cracking the Windows password. The tool runs on multiple platforms and comes with a graphical user interface. The rainbow tables used by the tool contain LM hashes that are used for cracking Windows password (Tornio, 2020). Furthermore, one does not need to buy the software to use since it is also free and open-source software. The tool allows users to use additional rainbow tables that can be downloaded to add to the software’s rainbow tables.
The tool finds it hard to crack passwords containing more than fourteen characters and has a combination of numerical and alphanumerical values. Therefore, for the system admin to protect the Windows system from this kind of attack, they need to use a password that will not be easily cracked with a hacker.
Description of the results obtained
The screenshot below shows the cracking process using the OphCrack tool. Before launching a successful Windows password crack, some several procedures and steps need to be observed. When the software is run, for example, the number of logical cores of the computer should correspond to the threads. Then the hashes are loaded using the load button, which can be entered manually. Lastly, the user’s accounts that may not be required are deleted, and the yellow and green buttons are enabled. When the crack button is clicked, the process of cracking the windows password begins. The image below shows a screenshot of a complete cracking process.
Recommendations for the Best Password Cracking Tool.
According to the analysis from the research done on the four password cracking tools, each of them is important, depending on the user’s intentions. For example, if you wish to crack the password for windows login, the OphCrack tool is the best to use. On the other hand, if you want to hack online accounts, you can either use the Hydra or John the Ripper. However, in this case, John the Ripper is better than HTC Hydra. It is because HTC Hydra works only online, but John the Ripper can be used both online and offline to crack passwords. In addition to that, John the Ripper is available for both the professionals and the novices.
WondorHow. (2020). Hack Like a Pro: How to Crack Online Passwords with Tamper Data & THC Hydra. WonderHowTo. Retrieved 28 August 2020, from https://null-byte.wonderhowto.com/how-to/hack-like-pro-crack-online-passwords-with-tamper-data-thc-hydra-0155374/.
Blackmoreops. (2020). Cracking password in Kali Linux using John the Ripper. blackMORE Ops. Retrieved 28 August 2020, from https://www.blackmoreops.com/2015/11/10/cracking-password-in-kali-linux-using-john-the-ripper/.
Tornio, S. (2020). Let’s Get Cracking: A Beginner’s Guide to Password Analysis. Blog.focal-point.com. Retrieved 28 August 2020, from https://blog.focal-point.com/lets-get-cracking-a-beginners-guide-to-password-analysis.
The data breach faced by Marriott Internationals is the most recent large scale data breach, which involved its Starwood division hotels. The international hotel acknowledged the reservation systems’ compromises, where customer information included passport numbers and credit cards (Gaglione Jr, 2019). The breach was flagged by an internal security tool, which reported an unauthorized attempt to access the internal guest reservation database for the Starwood brands for Marriott International. It was reported after the forensic process that the reservation system had been comprised early in 2014 before the acquisition by the Hotel brand, Marriott International (Gaglione Jr, 2019). Marriott acquired the Starwood. The reservation system used by the former Starwood hotels did not migrate toward the Marriot’s reservation system and still utilized the former Starwood hotel’s infrastructure.
Before the company acquisition, Starwood IT and Infosecurity were run and monitored by Accenture noticed an unusual database query (Gaglione Jr, 2019). A user made the database query with administrator privileges. However, on quick evaluation, it was noticed that the person assigned to the account did not make the query. Hence someone else had gain control of the account. The investigation conducted found that data was encrypted and removed from the Starwood systems (Gaglione Jr, 2019). More analysis also indicated that the attackers could decrypt the data, which included information on over 500 million guest records. Most of the records were described to have extremely sensitive information like credit card and passport numbers. From the investigation, Remote Access Trojan was used in conjunction with MimiKatz that sniffs out the username and the password combinations in system memory (Dalal, 2019). The two tools are speculated to have given the attackers control of the administrator account.
Starwood and Marriott’s mistakes involved the failure of basic security where there was a lack of in-depth defense, which allowed attackers to stay in the system for years. Marriott was compromised due to its failure to follow an important cybersecurity rule that strengthens security by implementing the principle of assumes the company is compromised and acting accordingly. According to Dalal (2019), several deidentification methods would have been applied by the company, including differential privacy, pseudonymization, tokenization, and data masking.
The company should have ensured proper security assessment every year through a third-party vendor, which requires the company to meet compliance requirements. Proper tests would have uncovered and make an indication for the compromise. In a company acquisition situation, cybersecurity assessment should involve risk and vulnerability assessment, penetration test, and overall security controls assessment for the merging company (Dalal, 2019). Another way would involve the frequent monitoring of cloud access, which must identify those who log into the network and how much data they are moving and accessing. It is from cloud monitoring where suspicious log-in location and large data transfer are identified and stopped. It is critical to encrypt data within the company, but it is more important to store the encryption keys. The encryption keys must be stored correctly. Furthermore, there should be efforts to strike a balance between cybersecurity and business operations. Cybersecurity must be made a priority for local and international businesses as breaches can adversely affect the daily operations.
In conclusion, businesses and companies should focus on performing proper security assessments. Most importantly, proper vetting of databases should be carried out before any merges can be implemented.
Dalal H. (2019, March 20). Marriott could have prevented privacy data breach with Tokenization. Security Boulevard. Retrieved from https://securityboulevard.com/2019/03/marriott-could-have-prevented-privacy-data-breach-with-tokenization/
Gaglione Jr, G. S. (2019). The Equifax Data Breach: An Opportunity to Improve Consumer Protection and Cybersecurity Efforts in America. Buff. L. Rev., 67, 1133.
Public Administration Journaling
Public Administration Journaling
Job stressors are demands at work and environmental conditions that tax people. There are positive stressors known as challenging stressors, and negative stressors, also known as hindrance stressors. According to Denhardt et al. (2018), the challenge stressors positively affect a person’s behavior or attitude towards work like the time pressure, workload, job responsibility, and complexity, among others, which help a person grow and excel in their career. The hindrance stressors harm a person’s behavior and attitude towards work, including job instability, role ambiguity, organizational politics, and the rest, which thwart a person’s goal attainment and personal growth.
According to Denhardt et al. (2018), one of the most common causes of personal workplace stress includes working for long hours without a break. This results in fatigue, which makes individuals unproductive at work. The second cause could be a heavy workload. Without time to relax, a person becomes dull and unproductive. The third is over-supervision at work. This is where a person is always being observed, which means the manager does not trust the employee. The fourth is changes within the workplace. That could be a cause of personal stress in the workplace because when a person is used to a certain routine or certain people, changes are made suddenly, or reshuffling is often done. Consequently, this could affect the employee, therefore, lead to stress (Denhardt et al., 2018). Others include conflict with coworkers, job interfering with family life, travel, or communication problems.
Some stress management tips would be of interest to me if one were in this position. They include keeping a positive attitude at work, accepting that some things cannot be changed, assertive instead of unnecessary aggressiveness like asserting beliefs, feelings, and opinions instead of always jumping into conclusions or being angry, passive, or defensive (Denhardt et al., 2018). Others include eating a healthy and balanced diet, learning relaxation techniques like yoga, and exercising regularly. One could also ensure that he/she gets enough sleep, especially if they had a lot of work during the day. This would make time for relaxation, hobbies, and fun. It is also good to seek social support, which helps in relieving stress.
Employee creativity is the ability of a hired person to generate novel and valuable ideas in the workplace for concepts, products, processes, and services that are different from what was already there. Engaging in creative behavior improves overall health, improves mental health, physical health, and brain function, and most importantly, it helps mitigate stress (Deswal, 2019). Enhancing creativity increases happiness by reducing anxiety, slowing down the heart rate, and boosting the mind. When a person creates, an imagination is invoked, usually a constructive and productive use of the mind. When a creative task is intensely focused, a person can achieve a state of flow whereby the best performance is achieved at an optimal state of consciousness.
Summarily, increased stress may lead to behavioral distress like increased alcohol consumption or smoking, aggression, drug abuse, and dietary extremes. Stress compromises the immune system making them vulnerable to diseases and illnesses. It also has psychological effects like fear, frustrations, pressure, conflicts, confusion, and loneliness. There are implications of poorly managed stress in the workplace that are also profound, which causes a direct or an indirect cost in an organization. Direct consequences are like decreased performance, increased absenteeism, accidents, or violence. The primary cause of individual stress is life changes. Mitigating stress requires one to prevent harmful levels of stress and effectively to respond to stress.
Denhardt, R. B., Denhardt, J. V., Aristigueta, M. P., & Rawlings, K. C. (2018). Managing human behavior in public and nonprofit organizations. CQ Press. Retrieved from https://online.vitalsource.com/#/books/9781506382654/
Deswal, N. (2019). Stress, Therapy and Comic Relief. National Development, 113.
Primary Resource Essay on Aristotle, Politics and Plato, the Republic
The political society is an important base of codependence necessary to achieve “good life” and happiness. It is explained that the village is the primary basis of a state and is composed of equally important aspects that have a significant role. Such significance includes the man as the leader and the woman as the healer given by Plato in The Republic. As man has been described to be dependent on the state in Aristotle’s Politics, the political relevance of classes within a state or a society, as Plato says in The Republic, gives the essence of man’s dependence in it to achieve happiness.
Man cannot be dependent on one’s self because every part of society has an equally important role to play in order for it as a whole to achieve happiness. The first section of Aristotle’s Politics describes the union that exists between man and other aspects of a society that has to be preserved for each has its importance: “…there must be a union of those who cannot exist without each other…that both may be preserved.” In this elaboration, Aristotle intends on explaining the codependence of certain parties in the society, for instance, “men and women,” and “master and slave” in achieving the happy ending of the society. Furthermore, Aristotle suggests that a “state” is an integral part of the human life with regards to achieving “good life” because it is the end of the basic unit of a village, and that “the end of a thing is the best…” The thought given by Aristotle here represents the essential dependence of man to his state, with the priori that “a man…without a state is either a bad man or above humanity…” It represents the relationship between the state and its people here that links Aristotle’s work to Plato’s. Plato uses the states to elaborate on what justice is when perceived from the political perspective. In the “imaginary city that Plato uses to explain his narrative, there are three codependent aspects of society; the ruler, the guardian and the producers This alone presents the evidence of a codependence nature of the society of men, to achieve happiness. In light of this fact, the political power and influence must resonate within the subjects’ interests and not the rulers to make justice suffice among all the subjects.
The political sphere of society is governed by justice, trust, and inclusion, as is my synthetic priori to analyze its importance in governing a society. Plato defines a political society as one governed by codependent aspects such as the ruler, the guardian, and the producer. This aspect represents the codependence nature of man and his subjects in achieving happiness. As such, in Aristotle’s view, society is divided into different classes, as likewise seen in Plato, “one class is very rich, another very poor, and a third in a mean.” As is the view of Plato, the guardian is the moderator and hero of the state. Further, Glaucon uses the analogy of a dog and its family to emphasize the importance of the division of power in the society, for it is the ultimate political understanding in a society: “the only difference between them is that the males are stronger and the females weaker.” This analogy represents the different capabilities of various aspects of the society; in this case, the male and female and their reliance upon each other. The man has been described as a leader of the family and the woman as the healer. With such a perspective, the political sphere has been applauded as one with different sections exercising different strengths as it is mandatory to be governed by reason among such diversified powers. With the guardian in the case of Plato being given the ability to protect the people from unjust actions, Aristotle can somewhat be seen as having the median class as the states’ guardians. This sanction stems from the fact that this class is not unstable when it comes to political power, unlike the low and high classes: “…the middle class is least likely to shrink from rule, or to be over-ambitious for it…” For this reason, the middle class can be considered the guardians of the state.
In conclusion, man is dependent on the state as a source of completion as he has been described as a “political animal.” With this regard, the importance of states has been delineated as one that serves to create a just environment for its people by way of further establishing political society. A leader governs this society, its people protected by a guardian and fed by the producers. The contributions of both Aristotle and Plato in Politics and The Republic gives the significance of political influence and the benefits it can accrue to its people. As such, the state is given as the ending of a village, which is the most primary political state. As has been described, the ending of something is better than its beginning, therefore offering happiness in its final state; therefore, a state offers happiness to its people.
Aristotle, Jowett, B., & Davis, H. W. (1920). Aristotle’s Politics. Oxford: At the Clarendon Press.
Plato & Bloom, A. (1968). The Republic. New York: New York Basic Books.
Smart Home as a Service
Smart Home as a Service
Smart Home as a service is a collection of specialized services that perform input from the smart home sensors. It learns the family’s living pattern and how they use the home, making intelligent decisions to make the homes; more safe, comfortable, and energy-efficient (Park et al., 2018). A Smart Homes as a Service (SHaaS) system includes multiple services that use input from the home sensors.
The SHaaS technology makes use of smart devices which has use intelligence with decision-making capabilities. Smart devices’ network on the system and application analyzes the incoming data and decides to control and activate other devices without the need for human intervention. A network of sensors is employed to measure and monitors the home environment constantly (Kim, Park, & Choi, 2017). The smart sensors collect information about who is at home, where they are at home, and what normal activity they are doing at home on a particular day and time.
The SHaaS service track certain events and behavior patterns in the home and recognizes what is going on in the home. The SHaaS uses intelligence and information learned by the system about residents. It makes decisions about whether to turn on or off the heater, the air conditioner, the lights, its checks whether to lock doors and windows and activate the home’s security system (Park et al., 2018). The system should automatically sense when the family member is streaming a movie on a hot summer night. It should turn off the lights and turn down the air conditioner in the empty parts of the home. The system should identify power-consuming devices that are not in use, such as gaming console and computer, and turn them off using sensors.
SHaaS system reduces wastage of resources from water to power energy by monitoring consumption. The system reduced energy consumption by anticipating the fall of outside temperature during the night. It saves water by monitoring the water supply system for leak and flow issues (Park et al., 2018). The network of devices learns how they live in the home and makes predictions about family behaviors. It gains knowledge of the number of household members, how the rooms are used, and when used. It understands when the members who are working from home and who gets up early. The behavior patterns are absorbed by the SHaaS system and exploited to enhance the convenience and comfort of the home environment (Apthorpe, Reisman, & Feamster, 2017). The home environment is set to be cost-saving and potentially reduce energy consumption.
There are four basic components of the SHaaS system that are meant to work together. These include a network of sensors, a local hub, a central management app. At the same time, the service provider handles subscriptions and software upgrades (Park et al., 2018). The network of sensors in the home works by providing a general indication of the home’s movement, when and where they occur. The sensors also check whether the home is secure and how the prevailing environmental conditions and other issues are collected. The sensors collect information wirelessly connected to the local hub, a gateway that performs the task of securely transmitting to an intelligent cloud service (Hong, Nam, & Kim, 2020). The intelligent cloud service collects the input and analyzes it; whenever changes are detected, the family members are notified by sending alerts.
The central management app allows the consumer, including family members, to manage the network of sensors and cloud service through their smartphones and other web-connected devices in a single user interface. The SHaaS service providers can handle customer support and deal with the service and software upgrades and install any changes to the system. The service provider performs the billing and management of the subscription of the SHaaS service.
The form of network connectivity is mostly wireless for smart home devices within the house. Network connectivity involves wireless connectivity options such as Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, and ZigBee. Wi-Fi offers high bandwidth wireless connectivity for music and video streaming (Park et al., 2018). Bluetooth is a great wireless option that is efficient and low-cost and handles communications for all kinds of low data rate applications varying from wearables, device input, and output. ZigBee is developing wireless options that handle connections of low data rate battery-operated networking applications such as security systems, home sensor networks, and environmental controls.
Vivint Smart Home is a company that delivers smart home products and services that enable the management and protection of their homes and families (Hong, Nam, & Kim, 2020). Vivint Smart Home deals with equipment-financing plans that initially promote the purchase of their equipment and operate a proprietary cloud-based AI platform that operates in processing over 500 million events daily (Hong, Nam, & Kim, 2020). The data on events feeds on the AI engine to assist in learning how the customer can be supported in the management of their homes.
Comfort system is a product of Cytech Technology, including an integration of intruder alarm, home automation controller, voicemail, and intercom, which come in one package. A design and installed Comfort system improves the home by smart home features such as fully automated home cinema room, multi-room music system, audio, video distribution, surveillance monitoring, light control, and access control. The service provider states that the design principles of discrete and manageable technology result in a dramatic and dramatic living space and allows useable control features and an extensive home entertainment system (Hong, Nam, & Kim, 2020). The company highlights that the success of Smart Homes as a Service system is good design and installation using efficient products with a known track record in working together in the creation of a smart home.
According to Apthorpe, Reisman, and Feamster (2017), besides all the success, problems that face Smart Homes as a Service system include privacy exploitation, the high cost of installation and use, and the high dependency on the internet. A smart device recorded a private conversation from a recent incident and sent it to one of the individuals’ employees without the owner’s permission. Privacy issues pose frustrating problems and will raise acceptability debate if not solved and efforts directed towards securing the consumers (Apthorpe, Reisman, & Feamster, 2017). There is also the issue of the system’s complexity that increases dependencies on the professionals where only service providers can handle the specific Smart Homes as a Service system.
In conclusion, Smart Homes, as a Service technology, improves homes by offering 24/7 service of monitoring, tracking, and controlling events inside and outside the home, which is a superb experience. Although some homes might have pre-installed smart technology, whether pre-installed or post-installed, people must consider the safety and privacy before giving total control of their homes to smart devices and applications.
Apthorpe, N., Reisman, D., & Feamster, N. (2017). Closing the blinds: Four strategies for protecting smart home privacy from network observers. arXiv preprint arXiv:1705.06809.
Hong, A., Nam, C., & Kim, S. (2020). What will be the possible barriers to consumers’ adoption of smart home services?. Telecommunications Policy, 44(2), 101867.
Kim, Y., Park, Y., & Choi, J. (2017). A study on the adoption of IoT smart home service: using Value-based Adoption Model. Total Quality Management & Business Excellence, 28(9-10), 1149-1165.
Park, E., Kim, S., Kim, Y., & Kwon, S. J. (2018). Smart home services as the next mainstream of the ICT industry: determinants of the adoption of smart home services. Universal Access in the Information Society, 17(1), 175-190.
There is no purpose to be served by criminalizing conduct that a defendant does not understand or cannot control.
The attempt of criminalizing conduct that the defendant has no understanding and is unable to control does not meet the criminal justice aspect of justice, equality and fairness to the parties involved as in the cases of insanity and automatism or murder of diminished responsibility and loss of control. In this regard, the defendant is controlled by external forces that they have no control over to commit a crime; thus, it will be only fair to address the external factors instead of convicting the defendant. The field of criminal justice has experienced mixed reactions and opinions on handling defendants that have been involved in committing crimes out of their own free will in the interest of serving justice, equality and fairness to the defendant and the victims in the crimes (Ormerod, 2015). It is vital to note that circumstances and conditions experienced by the defendants incline them to engage in crime, and thus convicting them without considering their condition will not serve the aspects of justice, fairness and equality to the parties is interested in such cases. Consequently, the law needs to be sufficiently developed and equipped to ensure that it can effectively handle the cases where the defendant engages in crime due to insanity, automatisms and conditions beyond their control. In this regard, the defendant is handled most appropriately to ensure they are offered the relevant help to ensure that they do not engage in such crimes or any other crime in the future due to their nature and external forces. In such cases, persons involved in crime due to insanity or external forces should be judged or handled differently from normal people engaged in crime out of their free will. The process of criminalizing the conduct of a defendant should be based on the defendant’s condition (insanity and automatism) and circumstances (diminished responsibility and loss of control)to determine their guilt in the interest of serving justice, equality and fairness to all the parties involved.
The legal position of defendants unable to understand or control their criminal conduct
The legal position on handling insanity driven crimes have consistently changed as indicated through the defense approaches and tactics adopted and accepted in the courts of law. In this regard, the English law enables a suspect of a crime not convicted on very restricted occasions because they were insane at the time of the crime (Peay, 2012). The criminal lawyers pull an insanity defense to exonerate their clients from the criminal accusations. On the other hand, the automatism aspect is raised when the victim was in total lack of control for their action at the time of the alleged offense.
First, the law as provisions regulating the unfitness to take a plea to prevent suspects being put on trial from trial since they are thought to be incapable of participating appropriately in the legal proceedings. The criminal justice system deems it unfair to try a suspect who cannot defend themselves due to legally defend themselves (Peay, 2012). When the judge decides that the defendant is not fit to stand trial, the trial stops, and fact-finding heating occurs instead. When the hearing ends, and the judge decided that the suspect got involved in crime due to insanity, they are not convicted and thus cannot be sentenced.
The unfitness to take plea entails the mental state of the accused at the time of trial. At the same time, the defenses on the automatism and insanity concentrate on the accused’s mental state when they committed the offense. The suspect of a crime might have a mental disorder that influenced them when they were involved in crime, and the same mental disorder must be affecting when the case is taken to court (Dejchai, 2019). The aspect of unfitness and insanity overlap, but they involve various questions on the accused person’s mental capacity to handle the criminal justice process’s different stages. The insanity and automatism aspects are defined and ascertained from the field of psychology, psychiatry and medicine.
The insanity defense is provided under the “M’Naghten Rules,” as presented by the House of Lords in 1843, to establish a defense on insanity. The insanity defense goes through when it is proved that at the time of the act the accused was acting under the influence of disease of the mind, and does not know what they were doing was in contravention of set laws and rules (Dejchai, 2019). When the defendant effectively balances the probability that they lie within the insanity test, then the Crown Court will argue that they are not guilty because of insanity, also referred to as “special verdict.”
On the defense of automatism, it comes to play when the accused person lacked control of their actions and body when they were involved in committing a crime (Dejchai, 2019). The defense of automatism is available to all forms of crimes. In automatism, the accused need to present enough evidence to ensure that automatism becomes an issue of dispute between the prosecution and defense.
Deficiencies law handling defendants unable to understand or control their criminal conduct
The law has technicalities and weaknesses in addressing the defendant’s issue involved in crime as a result of automatism and insanity, thus requiring effective reform to streamline the operation of the law. In this regard, there are legal technicalities that affect the application of the unfitness to plead aspect. There is the question of whether a person is unfit to take a plea and stand trial will come when the accused is entering a plea to take charge of guilty or not, if not before (Rix, 2016). In order to be fit to take a plea and stand trial, the suspect must be capable of doing certain things such as instructing a lawyer to handle their case or follow trial proceedings. However, the challenge arises in that the legal test adopted in evaluating the accused’s fitness does not cover all the right abilities. The legal test sets the fitness threshold too high. The law does not prescribe the procedure nor the process to be adopted to evaluate and assess the accused’s fitness to stand trial. In this case, the current law’s effect is to limit the number of people found unfit to take a plea, meaning that many people are tried when their state of mind is not fit for standing trial or taking a plea. Therefore, there is a need to adopt reforms by setting parameters and processes to be adopted to test a person’s fitness to take a plea or stand trial. This approach would ensure an increase in the number of persons with grave mental disorders found not fit to stand trial and a decreasing number of people relying on reformed insanity defense for their crimes.
The law presents difficulties in defining the real meaning of “disease of the mind” regarding if it’s a disease or a disorder and that the word mind is not interpreted to mean the brain, thus confusing in determining the insanity defense. The M’Naghten test argues that the accused must be suffering from a defect of reason from the mind’s disease. The judges expound the phrase further to interpret the mind’s disease to be an impairment of mental functioning resulting from medical conditioning (Rix, 2016). In this case, the disorder is necessarily not a disease, and the word mind is not interpreted to mean the brain. The law has not limited the idea of disease of the mind to mental disorders; instead, the law has classified the lack of control caused by either the internal or external factors. The involuntary conduct caused by the internal factors is regarded as insanity and leads to a special verdict. On the other hand, involuntary conduct arising from external factors is regarded as automatism, and they amount to a simple acquittal. In this case, the law drawing a line between insanity and automatism introduces an anomaly since there is difficult to differentiate between internal (insanity) and external (automatism). There is confusion in applying the law, and thus the reform, in this case, should classify conditions that will be termed as either insanity or automatism to make it easy for judges to make decisions.
The M’Naghten law is in contradiction with the medical understanding. For instance, the terms “disease of the mind” and insanity are not legal terms but outdated legal; terms. Moreover, the term insanity is stigmatizing and inaccurate in reference to the defendant, thus putting off many people who would successfully win their cases through the insanity defense (Farrell, 2016). The “M’Naghten Rules” need to be interpreted with the help of medical practitioners or professionals to determine the severity of the defendant condition at the time they committed the offense and they type of condition they suffered to ensure that the law is effectively applied in the interest of common good for the defendant and the victims. On the other hand, the law needs to use socially acceptable and politically correct terms in reference to insanity and automatism to eliminate the stigma associated with insanity among the people. This approaches that the people will argue their cases on the doctrines of “M’Naghten Rules” to effectively defend their case.
Analysis, evaluation and application of legal theory
The insanity and automatism legal theories form the defense foundation in cases where the defendant committed crimes due to different internal and external factors. The application of the legal theory, in this case, can be evaluated from the evaluation of different case laws argued and decided using the “M’Naghten Rules.” It is vital to note that the disease of mind determination is more of a legal question as opposed to being a medical condition (Mackay, 2020). The legal question means that the insanity and automatism defenses are made based on the ordinary rules’ interpretation. In this case, any disease or condition that affects the body’s normal functioning and the mind is referred to as a disease of the mind; it does not have to be necessarily the disease affecting the brain. This approach makes the term disease of the mind to cover a wide range of conditions.
Numerous court cases can be evaluated and accessed to show the application of the insanity and automatism defenses. In this case, in the case of R v Burgess in 1991, Burgess attacked his friend Katrina while he was sleepwalking (statute). Burgess hit Katrina with a bottle and then picked up the video recorder and hit her head (Federman, 2013). In this case, the Crown Court argued that Burgess was innocent for the assault accusation because of insanity. The court ordered that Burges be detained in a psychiatrist hospital. The judge argued that sleeping was normal, but sleepwalking and causing violence while it was not normal. Therefore, Burgess causes a crime due to internal factors without his knowledge, and he was out of control of his actions; thus, the court found her not guilty but recommended psychiatric care to prevent such occurrences from occurring in the future. Additionally, under the British House of Lord, the case of R v Sullivan shows the application of the M’Naghten rule. In this case, Sullivan, the defendant, had an epileptic patient since his childhood was involved in hitting his friend during an epileptic seizure episode (Bird New, 2009). Upon recovery, the defendant could only recall that he was standing at a window with the victim lying on the floor with head injuries. The defendant was charged with assault, where the judge ruled in favor of the defendant, citing the incident occurred due to a disease of mind suffered from a post-epileptic seizure. Therefore, in both cases, the judge ruled in favor of the defendant by evaluating the causes of the purported violation of laws, thus establishing the violation due to the internal factors beyond the control of the defendants since they were related to the disease of the mind.
Logical and coherent argument handling cases where defendants unable to understand or control their criminal conduct
The M’Naghten rules provide insanity as criminal defense, but the success of the defendant is dependent on their ability and capability to prove the different aspects of the rule that include disease of the mind, defect of reason and the unawareness that their acts were wrong (Berman, 2016). The M’Naghten rules are driven towards ensuring that persons who find themselves in violation of different laws and rules due to their internal conditions or circumstances out of their control are protected from being found guilty. Thus, they are prescribed as not guilty despite their involvement in a crime.
The disease of mind entails the differences existing between being legal and medically insane. The court decision on insanity is made under the law and its interpretation, evidence and procedure (Mackay, 2020). In this case, any disease or condition that negatively affects the mind’s function is considered in cases as a contributing factor to one engaging in a crime. In the case of R v Hennessy, the defendant was accused of taking a vehicle without the owner’s consent. The defendant suffered from diabetes and had not taken insulin for three days, affecting his state of mind. The judge ruled that the condition disrupted the defendant’s mind; thus, he was sane and found not guilty.
The defect of reason element means that the defendant’s disease of mind must cause the defect of reason such that they cannot tell what they are doing in terms of nature and quality. In this case, the defendant loses their power of reasoning objectively, thus leading them to violate the law.
Lastly, the defendant or the accused must lack the knowledge that their acts are legally wrong. The fact that the defendants are unaware that their acts contradict the law makes them violate unknowingly (Loughnan and Ward, 2014). For instance, the case of T v Windle of 1952 was defense based on insanity was dismissed, for he knew his actions were wrong. The defendant suffered from mental illness but knowingly gave his wife a fatal dose of aspirin. The insanity defense was not accepted since there was no evidence and that the defendant knew that what he was doing was wrong.
The act of not criminalizing the conduct of defendants that cannot control or understand their acts of violating the law is addressed under the M’Naghten rules to ensure that such persons are protected from the law. In this regard, their defense is founded on insanity and automatism since it would be legally wrong to convict such individuals. Instead, the court finds alternative measures of handling them, such as recommending them to mental hospitals or psychiatric care. Additionally, the burden of proving insanity is left to the defendant where their case is dismissed when they prove the defense of insanity by showing a disease of the mind, defect of reason, and lack of knowledge of their acts’ illegality.
The complexity of Information Systems Research in the Digital World
Complexity is an increasing emerging aspect of the digital world. Some of the emerging technologies developments that exhibit complexity include robotic process automation, algorithm decision-making, Internet of things global digital infrastructure, and other digitally enable networks. These technological phenomenon fuel complexity in the digital world by enhancing hyper connections and mutual dependencies among organizations and processes. However, wicked problems that are caused by digitalization. It worth noting that complexity organizations and individuals in all dimensions. In the digital world, complexity new challenges and opportunities for information system research. This paper seeks to analyze an article focused on the complexity of IS in the digital world. It will define diverse emerging technology as a note in the article. The paper will also determine the impact of the emerging technologies on organizations and the steps that organizations can undertake to reduce the digitalization burden. The article’s name being analyzed is “Complexity and Information Systems Research in the Emerging Digital World.”
Emerging Technologies Noted in the article and how they are impacting organizations
Digital transformation is one of the emerging trends in business organizations. There are notable new technologies explored in the article, which are influencing organizations in diverse ways. One of the emerging exhibited in this article is the existence of microprocessors. Large and small devices are currently sufficiently powered by microprocessors and connected by the internet, almost all organizations. Most of these devices integrated with artificial intelligence (IA) engines, and they can act and operate on their own. IA is an emerging technology that allows for the simulation of intelligence processes of humans. It is a combined attribute of science and computer that allows information systems intelligent and human functions, make decisions, and solve problems. For instance, the article notes that organizations are using autonomous vehicles, which can interact and understand traffic signals amid vehicles driven by human beings. Generally, Artificial Intelligence applications that apply machine learning can take data and convert into actionable. However, the application is complex and expensive because it is expensive to process large amounts of data required by IA programing.
Moreover, social networks enable individuals in organizations to become an internet content creator. Generated content can be mashed with other prevailing content and shared among other users. Other digital platforms like Airbnb and Uber enables millions to connect worldwide. Another emerging technology is cloud computing technology, which entails computing services, such as databases, servers. Software, networking, among others over the internet. This technology has fostered faster innovation and economies of scale through various algorithms. Such examples elaborate some of the critical emerging technologies used by organizations in the current century, provided in the article. These technologies have enhanced social, technical systems that are critically changing the way organizations operate.
However, Change in technology is a dynamic process that causes dynamic complexity. These complexities regarding the emerging technologies impose critical challenges for both small scale and large scale organizations. This is because there is a need for enterprises to adapt to changing technologies while maintaining internal alignment constantly. Therefore organizations can use Enterprise architecture to reduce the burden of digitalization. This method helps cope with challenges associated complexity of technologies. It also enhances the management of information system and ensuring they are in line with business elements found in complex organizations.
In conclusion, digital transformation presents both opportunities and challenges in organizations in various industries. Organizations face diverse challenges in managing the associated complexity. Therefore, Enterprise Architecture is leveraged to align the transformation with business elements and help manage the complexity. It helps organizations transform and manage their architecture.
Subject Code and Title BRIEF
MIS602 Data Modelling & Database Design
Reflective Research Report
Three Thousand Word Limit
a, b, c, d
Submission Friday 11:59 PM AEST/AEDT of Module 6.1 (week 11)
The MIS602 Data Modelling & Database Design subject is designed for you to progressively add to your understanding of data and database management and its relevance with in business context. It also introduces you to some of the key features of database management system and designing database systems that will feature in later modules of this topic. In order for you to do well in this subject, it is imperative that you undertake all of the learning activities in the modules. The learning activities are presented as a way of scaffolding your learning so that you can attempt the building blocks of the assessments and be in a safe environment to fail and to learn from them. Therefore, doing your learning activities and seeking feedback from them from peers and from the learning facilitator is the single best way of preparing for doing well in this assessment.
The scenario for this assessment is a multi-specialty hospital system, the Royal Rundle Hospital (RRH), that provides a broad range of services to the community which include surgical, maternity, obstetric care, dialysis, emergency, mental health, aged and palliative care, allied health services and a 24-hour emergency department. The RRH has been serving in the region for over 50 years and has been using paper-based forms and documents to store and manage all the data with some use of spreadsheets that started not so long ago. Now that the management of RRH wants to take the advantages of Information Technology to maintain and manage the records of the various aspects of the hospital system more efficiently, they have put out a Request for Proposals (RFP) for appropriately qualified consultants to undertake a body of work that would help to scope the data requirements for such a system. With your success in your Torrens University Australia degree so far, and other similar projects that have garnered you some sustained success in the eyes of the profession and community, you have been shortlisted among no less than 10 other consultancies. There are expectations from them, then, as to the standard of report you will produce.
The management of the RRH has provided you with an overview and description of the hospital system as below-
The Royal Rundle Hospital (RRH) is a multi-specialty hospital that includes a number of departments, rooms, doctors, nurses, compounders, and other staff working in the hospital. Patients having different kinds of ailments come to the hospital and get checkup done from the relevant doctors. If required they are admitted in the hospital and discharged after treatment. The hospital maintains the records of various departments, rooms, and doctors in the hospital besides the most important records of the regular patients, patients admitted in the hospital, the checkup of patients done by the doctors, the patients that have been operated, and patients discharged from the hospital.
In RRH, there are many departments like Orthopedic, Pathology, Emergency, Dental, Gynecology, Anesthetics, I.C.U., Blood Bank, Operation Theater, Laboratory, M.R.I., Neurology, Cardiology, Cancer Department, Corpse, etc. There is an OPD where patients come and get a card (that is, entry card of the patient) for check up from the relevant doctor. After making entry in the card, they go to the relevant doctor’s room and the doctor checks up their ailments. According to the ailments, the doctor either prescribes medicine or admits the patient in the relevant department. The patient may choose either private or general room according to his/her need. But before getting admission in the hospital, the patient has to fulfill certain formalities of the hospital like room charges, etc. After the treatment is completed, the doctor discharges the patient. Before discharging from the hospital, the patient again has to complete certain formalities of the hospital like balance charges, test charges, operation charges (if any), blood charges, doctors’ charges, etc.
Next, the management talks about the doctors of the hospital. There are two types of the doctors in the hospital, namely, regular doctors and call-on doctors. Regular doctors are those doctors who come to the hospital daily. Call-on doctors are those doctors who are called by the hospital if the relevant regular doctor is not available.
The management believes and understands that the benefits of an IT solution to manage and maintain their records are enormous and hopes to gain a thorough insight that should come from a lot of forethought and design elements fed into it before it could be seriously considered by them.
The RRH management seeks consultation on what the data requirements of such a system might be.
There are two objectives of this assessment:
1. For the purposes of the client, the Royal Rundle Hospital (RRH) management, you are to produce a design brief and,
2. For the purposes of the assessment, you are to produce a reflection.
So, this written submission should expertly mix a consultative style—that is, providing a solution to the problem as outlined by the client—with a deep reflection on what you have learned in the subject and the potential for such an automated system. You will need to use your judgement on this, it is likely to take several drafts to get it right. The deliverable for this assessment is plainly:
You are required to create a consultative report that addresses the data requirements of the proposed Royal Rundle Hospital (RRH) System as well as commenting on the feasibility of such a solution, given what you learned in the subject. Following instructions will assist you in completion of the task.
Some hints for you to heed while you develop and write your assessment:
• Consider all aspects of the hospital’s operations and flows of data and then explore the benefits and challenges that an automated system may present in regard to effectiveness, efficiency an also adaptation issues, when implemented.
• The RRH management has not provided any assumptions and you should list these if
your proposal and reflection are to be considered cogent.
Based on your learning from the course modules and previous assignments, you are expected to come up with data requirements and a logical design of the system and a brief commentary on the design.
This consultative research and reflective report will be in a format that you choose and there are no prescriptions for what to include or what not to include. You will need to research consultant-grade reports (look for consulting reports form the Big Four firms as a guide and use them as the basis for their content, articulation presentation standard).
Besides your research and reflection, you should include logical data requirements in a design summary that includes appropriate Entity- Relationship (ER) Diagram replete with connectivity and cardinality considerations, and the database schema with the final set of Relations normalised to 3NF (Note: you do not need to include the normalisation steps). You should list any and all assumptions used in your report as well as any limitations that the reader should consider as they read your report.
You should treat the prescribed word limit as something you cannot breach as there is no plus-or- minus 10 per cent ascribed in this assessment. The reality of consultant-grade reports is that any that breach the requirements are rejected and no reasoning is provided to the consultant. As you are preparing for your professional life, treat this requirement as the same in this subject and that any report that breaches the word limit will not be marked.
Requests for extensions must be compliant with the university policy and must be applied for before the due date. Include in your application a full draft of your assessment as this draft may be what is assessed if the extension request is denied.
Submit your report to the submission point in Blackboard prior to the due date. In accordance with university policy, late assessments will attract a 10% of available grade penalty for every day late, up to a maximum of 5 days, after which the assessment will not be marked.
Please note that requests for resubmissions of this assessment will not be considered.
Learning Rubric: Assessment Three
Fail (Unacceptable) 0-49% Pass
(Proficient) 65-74% Distinction
75 -84% High Distinction
Understanding of the
30% Demonstrates limited understanding of the data requirements Fair understanding of the data requirements. May neglect to provide resources or that these are cursorily provided without reference to specific areas in the source. Good understanding of the data requirements demonstrated. May provide a limited number of sources the peer can use to develop their technique from. Very good understanding of the data requirements demonstrated. Makes recommendations to other external sources the peer can access to develop their understanding. Outstanding understanding of the data requirements demonstrated through recommendation of other sources with specific references to components of it that the peer will benefit from.
Capture of key entities and their relationships
40% Less than 50% entities and relationships are completed 50-64% entities and relationships completed 65-74% entities and relationships completed 75-84% entities and relationships completed 85-100% entities and relationships completed
30% Difficult to understand for audience, no logical/clear structure, poor flow of ideas, argument lacks supporting evidence. Audience cannot follow the line of reasoning. Information, arguments and evidence are presented in a way that is not always clear and logical. Line of reasoning is often difficult to follow. Information, arguments and evidence are well presented, mostly clear flow of ideas and arguments. Line of reasoning is easy to follow. Information, arguments and evidence are very well presented; the presentation is logical, clear and well supported by evidence. Demonstrates cultural sensitivity. Expertly presented; the presentation is logical, persuasive, and well supported by evidence, demonstrating a clear flow of ideas and arguments. Engages and sustains audience’s interest in the topic, demonstrates high levels of cultural sensitivity.
MIS602 Assign 3 Page 4 of 4
ASSESSMENT 3 BRIEF
Subject Code and Title MIS500 Foundations of Information Systems
Assessment Reflective Report
Length 1500 words (+/- 10%
Learning Outcomes The Subject Learning Outcomes demonstrated by successful completion of the task below include:
d) Effectively communicate and demonstrate understanding of the importance of ethical and professional standards in own career and professional future.
Submission Due by 11:55 PM AEST Friday of Module 6.1 (Week 11)
Intensive class: 11:55 PM AEST Friday of Module 6.1 (Week 6)
Total Marks 35 marks
This assessment task requires you to reflect on your experiences in MIS500 this trimester by following a four-step process to gain insights into the work you have done and how it relates to your own career and life more broadly. In doing so, you will need to produce a weekly journal to record your learning and then as the trimester comes to a close reflect on these experiences and submit a final reflection of 1500 words (+/- 10%) that will include the weekly journal as an appendices.
This is an individual assignment that tracks your growth as a student of Information Systems over the trimester. It is scaffolded around your weekly learning activities. Completing the activities and seeking input from your peers and the learning facilitator is essential for you to achieve a positive result in this subject. Before you start this assessment, be sure that you have completed the learning activities in all of the modules. This reflective report gives you the opportunity to communicate your understanding of how information systems relate to your career and future.
1. During Module 1 – 5, you were ask to produce a weekly journal to record your learnings each week. Based on these weekly journals, please write a 1500 word reflective report about your experience.
2. You are required to follow the four steps of Kolb’s learning cycle when writing the reflective report.
You will keep a learning journal throughout the trimester. Each week as you complete the learning activities you record your experience in spreadsheet or word document.
A suggested format for the learning journal is as follows:
Date Learning Activity Impact (what it means to you) Evidence (attach record of activity). This might be a set of slides, word document or pictures of work you
have completed in class
For each day in your learning journey, write the date and then the learning activity you engaged in. Detail what impact the learning had on you and then include any evidence you might like to keep for use later on. This journal should be appended to this assessment when you submit it.
(source: Kolb DA 1984, Experiential Learning experience as a source of learning and development, Prentice Hall,
Concrete experience – Keep a learning journal
The first step is to keep a learning journal for the trimester (Modules 1.1 through to 5.2 as described above. You should have already completed this step by now.
Reflective observation – Summarise what happened
You should now be able to comment on your experiences this trimester. This exercise is not a list of what you have done but rather an observation of what you have learned – were there any themes that arose from your journal? The point of a learning journal is to start a discussion on what the key concepts and skills you have learned and acquired during the course of this subject. This is because we often don’t stop to think and reflect on what we have learned
Abstract conceptualization – Analyse what this means
The next step is to analyse what you have found. Reflective practice is a process of thinking about new experiences with a view of learning. It is a form of personal response to new experiences, situations, events or information. What new knowledge have you gained in response to this exercise? And what does this information mean? You are expected to reflect at a deep level here. This means that it is not just about explaining what you have done in this subject rather it requires you to think about your personal beliefs, your background and the way you perceive the world around you. Did you learn anything in this subject that challenged you or change the way you thought about information systems or business?
Active experimentation – New action
The final step is to discuss what you plan to do with this new knowledge. These new insights may lead to a change of thinking or behaviour. In what ways? Set yourself some specific goals for your future studies or career.
1. You are required to write this assessment in a report format using the following headings:
3. Reflective Observation
4. Abstract conceptualization
5. Active experimentation
7. Appendix of learning journal (with evidence)
Please note that simply describing what you have done each week will not be sufficient to pass this assessment. You are expected to go ‘deeper’ and analyse what this subject meant to you and your future.
Formal citation of sources is not required. However, specific reference to your own experiences must be made. It is essential that you use appropriate APA style for citing and referencing research if you do make reference other work. Please see more information on referencing here http://library.laureate.net.au/research_skills/referencing
Please refer to the marking rubric to ensure you address all the assessment criteria.
Please submit ONE MSWord document (.doc or .docx) via the Assessment 3 section found in the main navigation menu of the subject’s Blackboard site. The Learning Facilitator will provide feedback via the Grade Centre in the LMS portal. Feedback can be viewed in My Grades.
Academic Integrity Declaration
I declare that except where I have referenced, the work I am submitting for this assessment task is my own work. I have read and am aware of Torrens University Australia Academic Integrity Policy and Procedure viewable online at http://www.torrens.edu.au/policies-and-forms
I am aware that I need to keep a copy of all submitted material and their drafts, and I will do so accordingly.
Assessment Attributes Fail
(Yet to achieve minimum standard) 0-49% Pass
(Proficient) 65-74% Distinction
75-84% High Distinction
Demonstrated understanding of the
Percentage for this criterion = 10%
No clear understanding of Kolb’s learning cycle. Has not clearly demonstrated an understanding of Kolb’s learning cycle. The four stages are not articulated and appropriate to the discussion. Demonstrated understanding of Kolb’s learning cycle. The four stages are clearly articulated and somewhat add to the discussion. Demonstrated understanding of Kolb’s learning cycle. The four stages are clearly articulated and appropriate to the discussion. Demonstrated understanding of Kolb’s learning cycle. The four stages are clearly articulated to a high level and appropriate to the discussion.
Reflection and analysis of own experiences demonstrating independent thinking and expressing meaningful insights.
Percentage for this
criterion = 25%
The learning journey has been cursorily put together and needs significant work in demonstrating how the subject has developed the student.
The learning journey has a passable level of detail; more work is needed to demonstrate how the subject has changed the student as a result of undergoing it.
An inadequate, unclear, unfocussed or overview which does not include analysis or personalization or express meaningful insights The learning journey shows an average level of depth; there may not be any vulnerability or detail in how they have changed as a result of undergoing the subject
The learning journey has a good level of depth and the student has shown a hint of vulnerability as well as good detail in how they have grown as a person and as a professional.
Reflection and analysis of own experiences is personalized, and to a certain extent
demonstrates independent thinking and expresses
The learning journey is chronicled to an appropriate depth and the student has shown vulnerability as well as significant detail in growing as a person as a professional.
Reflection and analysis of own experiences is consistently personalized, demonstrates independent thinking and expresses meaningful insights
Evidence of changed thinking and/or goal The learning journey has been cursorily put The scope of the report needs significant The scope of the learning journey may need to be The learning journey has a scope that is good and The learning journey narrative has been
Assessment Attributes Fail
(Yet to achieve minimum standard) 0-49% Pass
(Proficient) 65-74% Distinction
75-84% High Distinction
setting due to new understanding of behaviour
Percentage for this
criterion = 20%
together and needs significant work in scoping and recounting how the student has developed.
Goal setting was not attempted.
adjustment and the student needs further work in demonstrating how they have changed as a result of undergoing the subject.
Little attempt was made to set goals based on the knowledge attained from reflection. adjusted or the account provided may need more imagination as to how the subject developed the student.
Goals were set for the future includes a very good account of how the student changed as a person and as a professional.
Based on this reflection measureable goals were set for the future. scoped well and includes a complete account of how the student changed, both as a person and a professional.
Based on this reflection measureable goals were set for the future.
Percentage for this criterion = 30%
It may be obvious that the student has not completed self-directed study or completed the learning activities. Significant more work is needed to demonstrate the work the student did in the subject.
Little or no evidence is presented.
The student can be seen to have made an attempt to refer to work they have done in their study of the subject to illustrate their
Module 1.1 – 5.2 documented with some missing. Evidence is not well presented.
The assessment includes a good number of references to previous work completed in the subject to illustrate their journey.
Module 1.1 – 5.2 present (although some may be missing) and well documented. Evidence is robust and well presented with some gaps.
The assessment includes a very good number and frequency of references to previously completed work, to illustrate their journey.
Module 1.1 – 5.2 present and well documented. Evidence is robust and well presented.
The assessment includes numerous references to the learning journal and learning activities throughout.
Module 1.1 – 5.2 present and well documented. Evidence is robust and well presented.
Assessment Attributes Fail
(Yet to achieve minimum standard) 0-49% Pass
(Proficient) 65-74% Distinction
75-84% High Distinction
Percentage for this
criterion = 15%
Specialised language and terminology is rarely or inaccurately employed.
Meaning is repeatedly obscured by errors in the communication of ideas, including errors in structure, sequence, spelling, grammar, punctuation and/or the acknowledgment of sources.
Communicates in a readable manner that largely adheres to the given format.
Generally employs specialised language & terminology with accuracy.
Meaning is sometimes difficult to follow.
Information, arguments and evidence are structured and sequenced in a way that is not always clear and logical.
Some errors are evident in spelling, grammar and/or punctuation.
Communicates in a coherent and readable manner that adheres to the given format.
Accurately employs specialised language and
Meaning is easy to follow.
Information, arguments and evidence are structured and sequenced in a way that is clear and logical.
Occasional minor errors
present in spelling, grammar and/or punctuation.
Communicates coherently and concisely in a manner that adheres to the given format.
Accurately employs a wide range of specialised
language and terminology.
Engages audience interest.
Information, arguments and evidence are structured and sequenced in a way that is, clear and persuasive.
Spelling, grammar and punctuation are free from errors.
Communicates eloquently. Expresses meaning coherently, concisely and creatively within the given format.
Discerningly selects and precisely employs a wide range of specialised language and terminology.
Engages and sustains audience’s interest. Information, arguments and evidence are insightful, persuasive and expertly presented.
Spelling, grammar and punctuation are free from errors.