Health Belief

Health Belief
Society’s social principles are important in efforts to promote health and prevent disease. To companies and health researchers, it is a major tool for conducting a study to find out the cure and preventive measures for diseases.
Health belief is surrounded by varying cultural and political factors globally. The study of patients ‘ medical views on the various treatment methods that occur in all traditional societies is that each approach has its own clinical theories, causes, and healing mode. Treatment modality decisions are strongly dependent on the type of views patients have about the disorder and their social support network. Health beliefs help health researchers and clinicians create effective approaches to increase awareness of risk, encourage self-efficacy for weight loss and patterns of physical activity, and decrease disease rates (Jones, Roche $ Appel, 2009). This will promote a disease-free nation.
Children are a major beneficiary of health beliefs. The children’s Health Model has been established and it emphasizes the role of the caretaker influences on children’s health beliefs and actions. The role of the caretaker is to motivate the child, ensuring the child’s illness is treated and ensuring the child perceived benefits from medicines. Perceived benefits refer to believe in the advantages of the methods suggested for reducing the risk of the disease resulting from a particular behavior (Sharma, 2016). This will decrease the levels of mortality rates.
Medical values should benefit drug-making companies. As the public continues to have a positive belief that the medications are successful, the company will be able to predict habits of consumer safety. The government will be able to collect information to determine which population will be affected in order to satisfy its citizens.
Jones, E. J., Roche, C. C., & Appel, S. J. (2009). A review of the health beliefs and lifestyle behaviors of women with previous gestational diabetes. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic & Neonatal Nursing, 38(5), 516-526.
Sharma, M. (2016). Theoretical foundations of health education and health promotion. Jones & Bartlett Publishers.

The Christmas Tree as a Social Object

The Christmas Tree as a Social Object
Christmas is a globally celebrated Christian holiday synonymous with gifts and the sharing of presents. It is celebrated internationally, including the non-Christian nations. However, aside from gifts, shopping, bonfires, the abundance of food and Santa Claus, the most glaring sign of the beginning of the Christmas season is the Christmas tree. The tradition of the tree and the decorations was incepted by German-Americans who spread the culture across America and England by the mid 19th century. Most homesteads purchase Christmas trees of all sizes and materials to embody the holiday spirit. As McKechnie and Tynan (2006) demonstrate, the Christmas festivity entails spending a lot of money and time characterized in mass consumerism as evidence shows increased spending and a surge in commensurate consumer debt; it is imperative to note that the holiday is spiritually and socially enriching as a result of the cultivated culture of togetherness and sharing. Thus, the Christmas tree may cause financial detriment, however, the social impact is the symbol of fellowship and love.
The Christmas tree varies in the material used whereby some people opt for the expensive variant which is an actual tree cut down while others purchase a replica of the tree carved of plastic material. The tree is then adorned with decorations which are luminous lights and bulbs as well as colorful materials. The physical aspect of the object is not as important as the effect it has in a house as it embodies the Christmas spirit of love and gathering. It gets people into the mood of festivity and happiness. The social aspect is the most vital aside from the coloring and decorations making the house look beautiful and appealing. Manifestation and display of colors are known to elicit a positive mood and initiate excitement thus the adorning of luminous items on the tree.
The Christmas tree is the universally accepted symbol of the holiday. Some families have protocols on who should decorate the tree and what should be used to decorate. Women are commonly invested in the decoration of the Christmas tree to an extent the children may be barred from decorating it. The art of decoration has evolved to the extent that a specific person has authority on the adorning activity. McKechnie and Tynan (2006) establish from their research that some female heads of their homes are territorial about the decoration by presenting information on homes such as Judy’s where no one is allowed to participate in decorating and Stella’s where the children were allowed to help but she would redecorate once they fall asleep. Christmas trees are an intricate matter to an extent lack of decoration elicited negative perception on guests as insulting. Evidently, humans attach meaning to both symbols and actions with an example of the Christmas tree and the effort to decorate. The trees are normally put up after thanksgiving and taken down in the first week of January.
The issue of sustainability entails the environmental impact since most are cut down to facilitate this tradition. People should opt for either the recyclable PVC for artificial trees or recycle them by giving them to farmers as mulch or fodder, use them to minimize soil erosion or creating a habitat for the wildlife.
The financial implication has seen an upsurge for the consumers of the Christmas trees. Since the inception of the tradition, the price has escalated and the purchasers have increased as homesteads do not want to be left behind in the culture. A Christmas tree in a house is a symbol of happiness and festivity and people are nostalgic about it to an extent they have little concern for their financial detriment that comes later. Therefore, the Christmas tree has embodied the holiday and given people a feeling of belonging and nostalgia and has defined the festivity globally.
McKechnie, S., & Tynan, C. (2006). Social Meanings in Christmas Consumption: An Exploratory Study of UK Celebrants’ Consumption Rituals. Journal of Consumer Behaviour: An International Research Review, 5(2), 130-144. Retrieved from

In many industrial processes flow and pressure measurement is a vital and an integral part

Case study C

Part One
In many industrial processes flow and pressure measurement is a vital and an integral part. The transportation of fluids relies on accurate measurement of their flow. In this project, the equipment that will be suitable to measure the pressure and flow rate of beer during transportation is orifice plate. It is created by inserting an obstructing place in the pipe which has a round hole at the center which measures the pressure on each side of the orifice (Oliveira et al. 2009). The plates are trapped between two pipe flanges. Pressure taps on each flange make it possible to measure the Pressure differential across the plate. The dimensions of the plate and the pressure differential are combined with particular properties of the fluid which in this case is beer to determine the flow rate of the fluid through the pipe, thus, making it the best instrument to measure pressure and flow rate of beer in this case. Bernoulli’s equation is used for the calculation of the incompressible liquid flow
∆P=1/2 ρV_2^2-ρV_2^2
Given physical layout of a pipe, the equation can be modified to fit the dimensions of the pipe rather than velocity. Also, the equation perfectly assumes laminar flow which is not true in the real world since there is some amount of turbulence in the flow that converts kinetic energy into heat thus adding discharge coefficient (Cd ).

Q=〖C_d〗_√(2(P_(1-P_2 ) )/ρ ×A2/√(1-[A2/A1]^2 ))
Part two
Fluid is a substance that has no fixed shape and continually flows under applied shear stress. However, its properties determine how fluid can be used in technology and engineering as well as its behavior in fluid mechanics. The properties of a fluid comprise of density (ρ), which increases with the increase of the pressure of a liquid and decreases with increase in temperature and the density of any liquid is found by P= ρRT, where P is pressure, R is universal gas constant, and T is temperature. Viscosity is another fluid property that determines the amount of fluid resistant to shear stress. It decreases with increase in temperature of a liquid. Temperature is another liquid property that determines the degree of coldness or hotness of or heat intensity level of a fluid. It is measured in Kelvin scale which is widely used in engineering because it’s independent of properties of a substance, Celsius scale, and Fahrenheit scale. Pressure is the fluid force per unit area, denoted as P (Elger, Donald F., and John A. Roberson, 2016). There is also the specific volume property which is a volume that a fluid occupies per unit mass, a specific weight which is weight possessed by unit volume of a fluid which differs with changes in acceleration and specific gravity which is the ratio of the specific weight of the given fluid to the specific weight of the standard fluid. Some of the application includes; making glass objects of varying shapes though glass melting and pouring into molds due to the liquid flowing nature (viscosity) and ability to take the shape of a container. Water pumps also use the properties of a fluid (ability to flow and differences in pressure).

The equation of state as applies to fluids
PV= mRT{R is Universal Gas Constant)
P= ρRT (since ρ=m/V)
M =Mass

Oliveira, J.L.G., Passos, J.C., Verschaeren, R. and van der Geld, C., 2009. Mass flow rate measurements in gas–liquid flows by means of a venturi or orifice plate coupled to a void fraction sensor. Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science, 33(2), pp.253-260.
Elger, D.F. and Roberson, J.A., 2016. Engineering fluid mechanics (pp. 170-185). Hoboken (NJ): Wiley.

Standardized Testing

Standardized Testing
Education systems and educators throughout the country are experiencing huge amounts of pressure to demonstrate effectiveness. Each state or country use different indicators for this purpose. Unfortunately, most these education indicators which most of the countries use have rendered fault results. Lately, if the standards of education and the results of an individual student is high most people believe that the school. Education system or the student is effective. Further, that if the standard test is too low, then the student, school of education system is ineffective. In either of these cases, because the yardstick used to measure the education standards is wrong, then we are apt to erroneous results.
One of the reasons why the standardized test is still used as a indicator of effectiveness in the education sector is deceptively simple. Educators and education sectors do not understand why this indicator remits wrong and erroneous results (Kelleghan, et al, 2012). A standardized test is an examination based test, where the results of the examinations are predetermined in a standard manner. The standardized test embraces two major tests; the achievement test and aptitude test. It predicts how best students will be performing in subsequent tests (Kelleghan, et al, 2012). Some of the common tests within the standardized test include; ACT and SAT-1. These two types of tests predict how students upon completion of upper school will perform in college.
In the recent past, the country has witnessed an upsurge of protests against the standardized test regime. Some of its critics hold that the test is literally strangling learners especially in public schools (Wiliam, and Dylan, 2010). Calls on the government to adopt another education indicator have gained momentum as most of them urge that the standardized test is worthless. Some of the reasons advanced against this test include; that since the learners are aware that the system is result oriented and that the results obtained determines their future lives, they will do all that is possible to pass the tests (Wiliam, and Dylan, 2010). Some of the extreme decisions that students may make include using and abusing performance drugs and cheating in examinations.
Furthermore, teacher’s and instructor’s contracts depend on their effectiveness. Because the instructors know that student’s scores affects their livelihoods, they also engage in unethical practices such as cheating and assisting students to pass examinations (Zwick, and Rebecca, 2013). Additionally, the standardized test does not provide educational value feedback and the best model of teaching or delivery. The results are usually held at marking and education offices for months before being released to the learners and teachers (Zwick, and Rebecca, 2013). Compounding this problem, the standard quality assurance does not provide means for improving tests obtained in a particular test.
The world is moving toward technological discoveries, innovation and creativity. Unfortunately, the standardized test does not value innovation and creativity. Some of the students write creative answers on the margins of their answer sheets, but the system does not appreciate anything written outside the allowed space (Bhattacharyya, et al, 2013). Additionally, the test does not value diversity. Learners taking the test have different cultural, thinking capacities, language proficiency, family background and experience, which are not catered by this test (Bhattacharyya, et al, 2013). The standardized test treats all these learners as equals and as if they are identical.
Moreover, the standardized test tend to extend privileges to those learners from well to do social-economic background. The companies providing these services, not only do they manufacture the courses, they manufacture test results for rich learners (Graf-Webster, and Erika, 2011). A rich learner is able to employ a special or qualified instructor, who will assist the learners do their assignments (Graf-Webster, and Erika, 2011. For the poor and less fortunate learners, the school lacks even the basics for learning and hence the poor learners do not get the kind of preparation that rich learners are provided with.
Standardized test focus most on the results of the test, and therefore, teachers focus on teaching tests on the expense of developmental learning. Most of the time, learners are taught on how to handle test, pass tests and taking the tests (Graf-Webster, and Erika, 2011. There is no time allocated by the teachers to teach new ideas or concepts. Further, the test system offers an artificial learning environment. Time for learning is strictly allocated, learners do not have time to socialize with other students, and they have no time to use learning tools, ask questions or talk with their colleagues (Graf-Webster, and Erika, 2011. It is a form of prison, which is not supposed to be the case. A good education system should prepare the learners to the real world.
The standardized tests have indeed reduced the potentials of our students, human learning and human experience. A learner may have knowledge in a certain area, but the learner may not receive an additional education to further his interest. Standardized test only provides an artificial and a false security to the teachers, students and parents. That if a student scores well in a particular subject, it is assumed that the student has knowledge in that area, which may not necessary be the case. Students have memorized formulas and tricks necessary to pass these tests. The test only creates losers and winners in our communities and therefore based on the above argument, the standardized tests is worthless.

Bhattacharyya, Sumita, Mary Junot, and Hillary Clark. “Can you hear us? Voices raised against standardized testing by novice teachers.” Creative Education 4.10 (2013): 633.
Graf-Webster, Erika. “Standardized Testing: Good or Bad for Assessment of Teacher Performance, Assessment of the Education System?.” (2011).
Kelleghan, Thomas, George F. Madaus, and Peter W. Airasian. The effects of standardized testing. Vol. 1. Springer Science & Business Media, 2012.
Wiliam, Dylan. “Standardized testing and school accountability.” Educational Psychologist 45.2 (2010): 107-122.
Zwick, Rebecca, ed. Rethinking the SAT: The future of standardized testing in university admissions. Routledge, 2013.

Public Communication 1 Essay

Public Communication 1

Public Communication
A public forum is open to all expression that is safeguarded under the First Amendment. Parks, sidewalks, and streets are perceived open to public debate by tradition and are designated as conventional public forums. Notably, the aforementioned public fora have always been considered so because historically, they have been dedicated to debate and assembly. As such, it has been plainly established that in these public fora, the government’s ability to limit speech is very limited. For the First Amendment, the government, in committing public forums for expressive reasons, may take reasonable restrictions on who may utilize it (Krotoszynski, 2019). The Supreme Court, therefore, defines a limited public forum as a forum that the government sets aside for expressive activities. Like conventional public forums, content-based speech limitations in an assigned public forum are subject to stringent scrutiny.
For a long time, subways have been perceived as limited public fora or public fora based on public access and different uses. However, it is important to note that this does not mean that limitations on public discourse in subway platforms are doomed from the onset. If a substantial government interest such as hazardous crowding on subways is demonstrated, limitation on the number of people who are allowed to speak or even a complete ban may be upheld. In the evaluation of ISKCON v. Lee, it is evident that it is possible to make a sturdy argument that, subways, or at a minimum, subway platforms or corridors-are mainly for the movement of people, and as such, their intention is not to serve as conventional public fora (Barron, 2006). The regulations need to have neutral content, closely tailored, and demonstrate a substantial government interest. Also, reviewing the Young v. N.Y. Transit Authority case reveals that a regulation that safeguards passengers from extortion, aggravation, unwanted touching, and threats was sustained. The decision pertaining to Young’s case was supported by far-reaching factual scrutiny, encompassing interviews. It helped to verify that because of the congestion and the narrow corridors, begging in the subway platform was perceived as a hostile activity that served to intimidate passengers.
In light of this assessment of the use of subway platforms for public discourse, I recommend that the court affirms the city council’s denial. According to the city council, holding the rally at the subway may offend the passengers, interfere with the traffic, and even pose a fire hazard. I find the city council’s reasons to be justified. As stated earlier, the government can ban meetings on subways if they are considered hazardous; in this case, the risk of a fire hazard is posed. In reference to the ISKCON v. Lee case, it can be said that subways should be left to carry on their main purpose for which they were created-to facilitate the movement of people. Notably, passengers may perceive the rally on the platform as hostile, as evidenced in the Young v. N.Y. Transit Authority case. I believe that the Freedonia Federation to Free the Falcon organization has a variety of options to choose from to hold their rally aside from the subway. As such, they can select a venue on one of the many public platforms available; after all, the government can hardly put restrictions on these platforms.

Barron, J. A. (2006). Constitutional law: Principles and policy, cases and materials. LexisNexis/Matthew Bender.
Krotoszynski, R. J. (2019). The disappearing First Amendment. Cambridge University Press.
Nielsen, L. B. (2009). License to harass: Law, hierarchy, and offensive public speech. Princeton University Press.

E-Business Development

E-Business Development

Avoiding Plagiarism
Plagiarism is the act of presenting the work or ideas of someone else as one’s own, with or without permission, by integrating it into one’s work without full acknowledgment. Simply put, plagiarism is a fraudulent act. It entails both stealing the work/ideas of someone else and lying about it later.
It is quite easy to find information for a majority of research papers. Still, it is not always simple to add that information into one’s writing without falling into the trap of plagiarism. However, there are several strategies an individual can apply to avoid plagiarism. One of the approaches entails planning one’s paper. This is where people plan how they are going to integrate their ideas with the external sources of information and how to balance these ideas (, 2017). Another approach pertains to paraphrasing. This entails putting information found into one’s own words. It is paramount to ensure that the text found is not copied verbatim more than two words in a row.
Quoting is yet another strategy. Utilizing external evidence is vital in academic writing, but there is a need to ensure that those sources are appropriately utilized. Therefore, when the ideas of another person are being used in a research paper, they must be quoted and correctly attributed to its rightful author. Another strategy relates to citing. Every time something is quoted or paraphrased in an essay, it is essential to include an in-text citation (or footnote citation) that identifies the actual author. Every in-text citation should match up to a full reference in the bibliography or reference list at the end of the paper (Calonia, 2020). This serves to provide details as to where the information originated from, making it possible for readers to situate the source for themselves.

Calonia, J. (2020, May 20). How to avoid plagiarism. Retrieved from (2017, May 12). Preventing plagiarism when writing. Retrieved from

Digital Evidence Research

Digital Evidence
The first step is to send a preservation of evidence letter. This entails putting all parties on notice that electronic evidence will be sought. This is important since the data stored on computers change each time a user loads a new program, saves a file, or does nearly anything on a computer. The second step is to gather backup tapes. This is a call for the provision of full backups that were made weekly and monthly (Balkin et al., 2017). This step is vital because backup tapes are one of the most fertile evidence sources. The next entails gathering the diskettes. Files and essential documents may also be saved in disks by users. Therefore, diskettes are critical because they are excellent sources of evidence. The fourth step involves asking each witness about computer usage. This is essential as it will lead to the revelation of data not disclosed by other methods (Pearson & Watson, 2017). The last step is to protect the chain of custody. This requires tracking evidence from its source to what is provided in court. Tracking is crucial since it ensures that evidence is not tampered with.
Upon entering the room where the computer was located, I took custody of the whole computer, encompassing floppy diskettes, and other removable media. I then went on to identify disk regions that may have evidence. Notably, evidence in a majority of computer forensic investigations lies in the user’s emails, internet history, documents, and any downloaded illegal images (Sremack, 2015). Therefore, I applied the use the Sifting Collectors application software. This software images only those areas of a disk that may contain artifacts, data, and other evidence.
After seizing the computer evidence, I then took my time to analyze it. This entailed tying it up to the digital crime. As such, I examined each item of evidence and established its relevance to the case at hand. I retained pertinent evidence and got rid of irrelevant evidence. I then drew up conclusions based on the relevant evidence found. I finished this process by writing a report.
Balkin, J., Grimmelmann, J., Katz, E., Kozlovski, N., Wagman, S., & Zarsky, T. (2017). Cybercrime: Digital cops in a networked environment. NYU Press.
Pearson, S., & Watson, R. (2017). Digital triage forensics: Processing the digital crime scene. Syngress.
Sremack, J. (2015). Big data forensics – Learning Hadoop investigations. Packt Publishing.

Criminal Justice Theory in Practice

Criminal Justice Theory in Practice

Question #1
It is fair to say that the criminal justice system is not always one hundred percent accurate when ruling out convictions. Over the past years, there have been several exonerations to free people who had been wrongly convicted. In the year 2018 alone, the Innocence Project was able to help 17 wrongly convicted individuals to gain their freedom after serving a total of 215 years (Innocence Project, 2018). Among them, Malcolm Alexander, who had been incarcerated at Louisiana’s Angola prison since 1980. He was wrongly identified by a rape victim and the evidence of the crime destroyed shortly after the trial. It was years later when new evidence was found, and a DNA test conducted was able to exclude Malcolm from the offense after serving 38-years in prison. All this would have been avoided if the witness/victim was evaluated properly when giving their testimony.
One of the ways to determine the credibility of eyewitness testimony includes the use of double-blind lineups. This is where both the victim and the administering officer are not aware of the suspects being brought in. It gives the witness a chance to view all suspects at once and then view them one at a time. It also aids in collecting confidence statements from the witness after the identification process. Unethical conduct among police or prosecutors may lead to the destruction of evidence, which is illegal. Police officers and prosecutors who engage in the destruction of evidence are punishable by imprisonment or formal probation. The criminal justice system can also increase the reliability of scientific evidence, such as DNA, by setting quality assurance parameters (Shaer, 2016). Laboratories that handle DNA forensics should be vetted and given strict policies to work under. Such measures will surely help reduce wrongful convictions while at the same time, exonerating innocently incarcerated individuals.
Question #2
Offender classification is often conducted under social, psychological, and biological backgrounds, as well as education. The same factors influence both true/false positives and false negatives, which are termed as prediction errors (Laws, 2020). False positives are errors whereby a prediction on an offender committing new crimes turns out wrong. This leads to the offenders being subjected to incarceration regardless of facts that prove their unlikeliness to indulge in further crime. On the other hand, false negatives take place when offenders are perceived to refrain from more crimes. In the long run, they commit crimes since they had no imposed restrictions.
True positive shows that the predictions made were reliable. The criminal justice system is aware that they cannot be error-free; hence they rely on the psychological, social, biological, and educational backgrounds to minimize the frequency of the errors. Psychological and biological factors are based on the individual’s mental history to evaluate any present patterns that may help with the judgment. Social factors rely on the perceptions of the society on the crime that has been committed (Laws, 2020). Some crimes such as murder or aggravated assault are perceived negatively by society; hence such an individual may face harsher punishment.
Education can also help determine an offender’s fate as different levels of education are perceived to establish the rule passed by the jury. Background checks are also conducted on individuals’ understanding of the community they are from and the state of their family. None of these factors may influence true/false positives and false negatives alone (Laws, 2020). The criminal justice system has to consider all or most to be able to make a reliable judgment.
Berk, R., Heidari, H., Jabbari, S., Kearns, M., & Roth, A. (2018). Fairness in criminal justice homework assignment risk assessments: The state of the art. Sociological Methods & Research, 0049124118782533.
Innocence Project. (2018). 2018: A record year in exonerations. Retrieved from
Laws, D. R. (2020). Offender Classification and Registration. In A History of the Assessment of Sex Offenders: 1830–2020. Emerald Publishing Limited.

Information Assurance Overview

Information Assurance Overview

Information Assurance Overview
The Information Assurance (IA) plan seeks to assure information and manage risks that pertain to the utilization, processing, storage, and broadcast of data or information and the systems and processes utilized for those purposes (Qian et al., 2017). Heavy Metal Engineering (HME) prioritizes the security of data. As such, the principles of information security (i.e., the CIA triad), inform our IA plan:
• Confidentiality-ensuring information is not revealed to unauthorized persons
• Integrity-maintaining and guaranteeing the preciseness and constancy of information over its whole lifecycle
• Availability-making sure that the information is available when and where it is required (Schou & Hernandez, 2018)
A plan or strategy for IA implementation
Essential to the HME strategy is offering a vigorous privacy and security program that cautiously considers data protection issues across services provided by the company, encompassing data submitted by clients.
Risk Mitigation Strategy
1. All facilities in the organization are safeguarded by:
• Intrusion detection
• Access control
• Video protection (CCTV)
2. Every HME staff employee is provided with a distinctive user account
3. Periodic training of employees-Network Administrators and System Administrators and individuals in charge of certain applications are regularly trained in best practices and how to mitigate security risks
4. All systems generate manufacturer-specific traceability logs which are often assessed to identify any unusual activities
An accrediting body
The accrediting body, in this case, is the National Institute of Standards and Technology
Incident response and disaster recovery plan
HME has several processes in place to respond to an incident and make sure that the disaster recovery plan is activated, which causes a rapid and effective re-establishment of services. Offsite and onsite backups, and secondary data centers’ availability, and support staff enable disaster recovery plans to be implemented rapidly and effectively in the event of a major disaster.

Qian, Y., Tipper, D., Krishnamurthy, P., & Joshi, J. (2017). Information assurance: Dependability and security in networked systems. Elsevier.
Schou, C., & Hernandez, S. (2018). Information assurance handbook: Effective computer security and risk management strategies. McGraw Hill Professional.

Pregnant Women and Drugs Essay

Pregnant Women and Drugs

Pregnant Women and Drugs
In my opinion, we should make alcohol use by pregnant women a crime. Women who are pregnant and those trying to conceive are often advised to avoid alcohol totally until after the baby is born. According to Abel (2012), even drinking one glass of wine regularly can put the unborn baby at risk of several mental, developmental, and emotional disorders; it should be noted that these effects are generally irreversible. As such, I believe that the law should play an active role in protecting the rights of the voiceless unborn baby to have a healthy life once it is born. Therefore, making the use of alcohol during pregnancy illegal will serve to discourage this behavior, and as a result, the health of an unborn baby is protected.
We should also make the use of tobacco by pregnant women during pregnancy a crime. Wu (2018) states that smoking tobacco when one is pregnant augments the risk of health problems for developing babies, encompassing low birth weight, preterm birth, and congenital disabilities of the lip and the mouth. Moreover, essay smoking affects the body’s ability to absorb different minerals and vitamins, encompassing calcium and vitamins C and D. It should be noted that these nutrients are essential for the growth of the baby. Therefore, the banning of tobacco use during pregnancy will go a long way to ensure that the baby is not denied essential nutrients and that they can lead healthy lives once they are born.
If women were charged, I believe that a reasonable punishment for consuming the chemicals during pregnancy would be committing them to a rehabilitation center. In my opinion, most of these women are addicted, and addiction is a disease. Their inability to stop using drugs once they realize they are pregnant is an indication that they have no choice. Therefore, rehabilitation will seek to salvage them from addiction as well as allow them to find prenatal care.

Abel, E. (2012). Fetal alcohol syndrome and fetal alcohol effects. Springer Science & Business Media.
Wu, W. (2018). Pregnancy and birth outcomes. BoD – Books on Demand.