A Look At Jm Barries Peter Pan English Literature Essay

As most of us are acquainted with the animation picture adaptation in 1953 by Walt Disney of Barrie’s fairy tale play “Peter Pan” [1] , we can perceive from our childhood memories that Never Land corresponds to an exotic, almost utopian-like location where children can behave uninhibitedly and enjoy the treasures of the island. Moreover, in Never Land only, they acquire the art of flying ;  all it takes is some pixie dust and happy thoughts, remember? However, Barrie displays Never Land as a much gloomier, dangerous and primitive environment where Darwinian principles rule as in ‘the struggle for existence’ and ‘survival of the fittest’. Furthermore one can acknowledge that the play also reflects on and even attacks a couple of Rousseauian values, as in ‘the noble savage’ that focuses on the beauty of a primitive human condition. Attached to these values Barrie also displays, though underscores Rousseau’s theory on childhood innocence by exposing the children’s savage behavior. During this analysis it will become evident that both Darwin and Rousseau’s theories are in fact linked and share a common ground which is centered around the notion of the ‘primitive human condition’. Ultimately, this analysis will be reflecting on and evaluating the issue of barbaric behavior in the play from a relativist and realistic perspective.

The publication of Charles Darwin’s most revolutionary theories in his Origins of Species published in 1859  was hailed, as Low et al (445) put it, as “the greatest event of Queen Victoria’s reign.” Some of the most significant, influential and crucial ideas that gave rise to the evolutionist theory, or so-called Darwinism, are ‘survival of the fittest’ and ‘the struggle for existence’ by natural selection. The latter is defined by Gause (1) as followed:

“Darwin considered the struggle for existence in a wide sense, including the competition of organisms for a possession of common places in nature, as well as their destruction of one another.”

Likewise, Hudson (316) argues that “[i]n this Darwinian world, [the inhabitants of Never Land] compete for survival in primitive battles.” On the island, Peter Pan and the Lost boys are constrained to share their territory with Hook and his pirate gang, vicious ‘Redskins’ [2] , treacherous mermaids, and bloodthirsty animals so conflict is never far off. In Act 3 Pan and the Lost Boys face the pirates in a major battle when Pan commands, “Boys, lam into the pirates”( PP 118). In the following chapter, Barrie also depicts Peter as a truly barbaric creature with “a sword in his hand, the same he slew Barbicue [sic] (a pirate) with; and in his eye is the lust for battle”(PP 144). Furthermore in Act 4, one encounters a second battle, although this time between two different ‘species’, to be precise, the ‘Redskins’ and the pirates. During the fight, the author invokes the ferocity of the battle even more by implementing terms which reinforce the image of warfare, such as  “carnage”, “attack”, “scalp”, “foe”, “tomahawked “and “onslaught” (PP144-145). Ultimately, as Jack suggest: “Peter Pan is, throughout, a tale of battles” (159).

Consequently, throughout the play the reader acknowledges the constant threat under which the Lost boys find themselves, mainly caused by the pirates. One of the Lost boys, Tootles, affirms this constant menace when he communicates, “I am always afraid of the pirates when Peter is not here to protect us” (Peter Pan, or the boy who would not grow up 81; from here onwards PP). Subsequently, Tootles’ anxiousness is justified since Hook proclaims: “I want to mischief all the seven. Scatter and look for them” (PP 86). Later on he even exclaims, “[a] holocaust of children, there’s something grand in the idea” (PP 164). Next to the threat of the pirates, the boys also need to be aware that they are not pulled into the water and drowned while playing at Mermaids Lagoon.

Warburton (14) then, cites that “Darwin showed how, by the process of survival of the fittest, those animals and plants best suited to their environment lived to pass on their characters to their offspring.” A major example of this Darwinian concept can be highlighted in Act Three when Peter is injured and thereby not capable of flying. After a battle with Hook he is abandoned on a rock to drown as soon as tide will come. Hence, Peter is determined by the ruthless force of nature. Fortunately there is a bird’s nest on the rock he is stuck on and after having had a conversation with the ‘mother-bird’, he is allowed to sail away in the nest. If it had not been for his wit and his ability of talking with birds, Peter had not been able to survive. The strongest survives, whereas the eggs are less fortunate.

In “Peter Pan”, Barrie also alludes on Rousseau’s theories with regard to ‘the Noble savage’. According to Leerssen (68), Rousseau denotes the “innocence, simplicity and moral purity of Noble Savages,” before they were corrupted by modern Western civilization. Nonetheless,  one can acknowledge that Barrie has definitely satirized these qualities. According to Cro (140), Rousseau denotes that this ideal of the Noble savage obtained in complete freedom but Barrie has proven differently, to be precise, the children are portrayed as barbaric, cruel and capable of committing murder. In act 2 for instance, the boys attack Wendy with their bows and arrows as she flies into the sky of Never Land. Next,  when Peter discovers Wendy with an arrow in her heart, Tootless confesses that it was his and  the next moment he is “kneeling and baring his breast”, ready to receive Peter’s dagger (PP 96). An eye for an eye it seems and Wendy only got up just in time to prevent the drama from happening. Subsequently it appears that to Peter, the act of killing is only a banal and minor issue, since he does it almost instinctively, automatically and apparently very often. To be exact, ‘the boy who would not grow up’ [3] , frozen in childhood, kills four pirates in a row without remorse. Even Wendy’s  little brother, Michael,  kills a pirate, proclaiming that he likes it. Another example of the children’s  uncivilized behavior regards one of Peter’s homecomings from hunt as he carries a bag with the heads of two tigers and a pirate. Wendy’s reaction on looking into the bag with the bloody heads is quite stunning as she proclaims that “they are beauties” (PP 132)! It is obvious, as Hudson (320) denotes, that “Barrie explores the primitive impulses, brutality and tyranny of children in Peter Pan.”

Ultimately, I would like to point out that, although the comments I have made do not deny that the issue of barbaric behavior is obvious in the play , I would prefer to put them in perspective. As savage and brutal Peter and the other inhabitants of Never Land are, they are generally accepted for being so, merely because they can be interpreted as creations of a child’s imagination. If you have ever observed children disguised as Indians or pirates while playing a fantasy game, you must have noticed that they appear to be attacking and killing each other. Besides, these barbaric actions are situated exclusively in Never Land, a creation of Barrie’s imagination where everything is allowed. When Peter is visiting the Darling home in Bloomsbury on the other hand, he does not attack or kill Nana, the dog, because in London he must adjust and adapt himself to a civilized world, whereas in Never Land he cuts off heads and hands on a daily basis.

On the whole one can conclude that in Barrie’s play  “Peter Pan”, one can investigate  a number of different perspectives and attitudes  on which Barrie alludes, such as Darwin’s visions on the ‘struggle for existence” and ‘the survival of the fittest’, next to aspects of Rousseau’s philosophy on childhood innocence. Whereas Barrie prefers to incorporate Darwinian beliefs, he definitely seems to parody on and satirize Rousseau’s. Both theorists however allude on the primitive human condition, but differently; Rousseau in a naïve and romantic way and Darwin in a more scientifically and rationally supported way. Finally, one should not forget that, although the inhabitants of Never Land seem ultimately cruel and savage, Barrie has incorporated child fantasies which are accepted merely because they are children’s fantasies.

An Analysis Of Desirees Baby English Literature Essay

In Kate Chopin’s “Desiree’s Baby,” the reasons for Armond Aubigny’s cruelty toward the slaves can be found in the childhood trauma inflicted upon him in Paris, and also because of the social forces that surround his life in Louisiana.

Although, in the story there is no mention of whether he knows his mother was black or not, there is the feeling that in the back of his mind he always knew he was of mixed color. He has repressed his past, and does not acknowledge that he has African-American blood flowing through his veins. As stated in the article ‘”Chopin’s Desiree’s Baby”, by R. R. Foy, “Armand was certainly old enough to remember his mother, but circumstances have caused him to suppress the past.”‘(Foy 222).

Chopin writes in such a way that the reader must decide for himself why Armand behaves the way he does in each situation. When he first sees Desiree leaning against the same stone pillar that she was found at, he falls madly in love with her and nothing seems to matter. This is realized by the section in the story, “It was no wonder, when she stood one day against the stone pillar in whose shadow she had lain asleep, eighteen years before, that Armand Aubigny riding by and seeing her there, had fallen in love with her.” (Chopin). Desiree’s father tells him that her heritage is unknown and he may need to know her background, but this does not matter to Armand because he says his good name is all that is needed for their happiness. At this point in the story, it appears that love is colorblind and all that matters is the love itself.

Madame Valmonde has the feeling of darkness around the plantation by her observations as she arrives at L’Abri, “When she reached L’Abri she shuddered at the first sight of it, as she always did. It was a sad looking place. The roof came down steep and black like a cowl, reaching out beyond the wide galleries that encircled the yellow stuccoed house.” (Chopin). This darkness carries throughout the story by the way Armand is described. He, like the place he lives, has very dark undertones. Armand does not treat his slaves the way his father treated them. This can be demonstrated by the passage, “Young Aubigny’s rule was a strict one, too, and under it his Negroes had forgotten how to be gay, as they had been during the old master’s easy-going and indulgent lifetime”.(Chopin). Desiree tells her mother of the change in Armand since the baby was born. He did not treat his slaves as badly as he had before, but the reader still has the feeling that this will not last long, even before the tragedy of the story unfolds. At this point, Armand seems to be a caring person, but actions can be deceiving. He appears to be the loving husband, but Desiree questions his actions, she is afraid of him when he is in a bad mood, and she thanks God to have him when he is in a good mood.

Armands’s true racism comes through when he believes that Desiree is black. He returns to his old ways of treating people, and Desiree is the one he directs his hatred towards. She cannot believe that he could feel the way he now feels about her and their child. By his actions, the reader is led to believe that he must have remembered, although repressed, that his mother was a Negro. As Foy relates in the article, “His hatred is the opposite extreme of love. By casting out the passion, he has in a way ended the cruelty and finally must come face to face with himself, the true source of his hatred, anger, and emotional distress. Armand hates the very thing he is.” (Foy 222).

With the fact that his social status is involved, he knows that he must have the respect of his peers, and keep up the family name. This is revealed when the author states that, “Armand is a man who must deal with a demanding social climate, uphold a position of noblesse oblige, and eventually come to terms with his own heritage.” (Foy). His family name is important to Armand because he wants to keep it from being tarnished by the fact that he may have married a black woman. By treating Desiree so coldly, he may as well have stabbed her in the heart, and she could never recover from his cruelty. Desiree finally realizes that something is wrong when there is uneasiness among the slaves and visitors begin to arrive for no reason.

As revealed in the story, Armand’s cruelty toward his slaves is not just the result of simple racism. He was affected early in life by the death of his mother, and having repressed the fact that she was Black. All that he hated was reflected in himself. He reacted to the slaves in the way he did because deep inside he knew he held the same heritage they did and he could not accept this thought. If the truth were ever known about his bloodline he knew his family name would forever be disgraced.

The Importance Of Language In The World English Language Essay

“Language is the blood of the soul into which thoughts run and out of which they grow.  “

~Oliver Wendell Holmes.

Language is a vital tool for communication. It is not only a means of communicating thoughts and ideas, but it builds friendships, economic relationships and cultural ties. We can communicate only with signs without language. More over a language distinguishes the differences and also celebrates the uniqueness of cultures in a country or in a region or in a community. A Language shapes the way people perceive the world and it also helps to define culture of any society. Any language is a gift the knowledge of more than one language makes a man more efficient and skilful in many ways. It opens our minds and guides us into a magical world of fancies and dreams. To certain the proper learning of language helps us to develop ourselves, our minds, and also our personality. Human language is unique because it is a symbolic communication system that is learned instead of biologically inherited for some people.

Functions of Language:

The three important functions of a language are as follows:

Informative function:

The primary function of a language is to communicate any information. This function accepts or denies assumptions such as the scientific fact or the factual statements. This function helps us to state the logical facts clearly.

Expressive Function:

The secondary function of a language is to convey the feelings or emotions or attitudes of somebody. We have poetry and other forms of literature in order to express our inner feelings in a better way. They evoke our feelings and also express our feelings.

Directive Function:

This function of language directs us to do some action. We come across directive function in requests and commands.

Hence it is proved that language plays a important role in different walks of life.

1.1.2 Importance of English:

English has been the considered to be the first global Lingua Franca. In today’s modern world the English language has become part and parcel of every existing field. It has been an international language of communication, business, science, information technology, entertainment and so on. Earlier everyone is considered to be literate by their degrees and diplomas, but the knowledge of English language makes an individual literate in today’s world. Though many countries do have English as their native language, those who have the command over the English Language are considered and respected as highly educated. Moreover they ocean of career opportunities are opened to those English speaking people anywhere and everywhere. It has become the working of English and also an inevitable requirement for a number of fields, professions such as computing and medicine.

In today’s world of globalization, we have to get knowledge of advanced technologies and all kinds of branches of Science. There is an urgent requirement of such a common language which can be understood by youth all over India and the language in which all data and information is available. Moreover English language becomes a store house of social and political knowledge. The most recent and the most sophisticated discoveries and inventions in science and technology are being made in the universities located in the United States of America where English language is the means of scientific discourse.

The world of today needs English for some of the following reasons:

Internet:

Due to the rapid growth of Information Technology especially the world of internet, English Language rules users of Internet. We cannot be effective in the internet world without the English Language. It has also become the official language of the internet. The advent of online universities has now made it possible for everyone to learn English. Everyone gets access to the features of internet even across the countries. The Internet has opened up new career opportunities for every citizen of the world outside their respective countries. Internet has also plays a vital to promote and to spread the English language throughout the globe and more and more people are exposed to the English language and the English has become also the language of the internet as well.

Education:

The field of education has amplified the function of English Language. Most of the educational resources, materials and books are in English. The global educational systems in the universities around the world have the requirement of English Language. People those who study in abroad use English language as a medium of communication and learning. The lack of English knowledge makes anyone insufficient in the realm of education in today’s world.

Communication:

The most important function of a language is to communicate properly. Hence English language also plays a powerful tool in communication. In order to communicate successfully, one needs a language that is commonly understood by most of the people in the speech community. For many years, English has become the common language globally understood and appreciated by nearly everyone. In other words English becomes an effective instrument to communicate with everyone around the world. Information technology uses this ability of English to function well in the field of communication by internet and emails.

Travel:

English is spoken around the globe next to Mandarin Chinese. It has been stated that out of the nearly six billion people living in the world today around three hundred and fifty million do speak English. It has become the International Business Language. Many countries around the world make use of English Language for the governance. The relationship among the countries around the world is enhanced by the effective communication in English. Language differs from nation to nation. When we travel around the globe, the English Language becomes the rescue factor to communicate with everyone.

Business:

English language has been the language of business in today’s electronic world. A good number of companies have ventured into sending the production to overseas in order to cut down their costs. In other words, the companies around the world are in to outsourcing and off-shoring business. In order to communicate with the business people of other countries, English Language becomes the effective tool. It is the trading language of the world to a certain extend. A sound knowledge of English Language makes an individual to be a successful business man around the world.

1.1.3 English Language in India

When the British started ruling India, they searched for educated Indian mediators who could help them to administer India. The British Government turned to high caste Indians to work for them. Many high caste Indians, especially the Brahmans and the other people of high caste worked for them. The British policy was to create an Indian class who should think like the British. It was said then in England “Indians in blood and color but English in taste, in opinions and morals and intellect”. The English also instituted in India universities based on English models with emphasis on English. These Indians also obtained their education in British universities. The English Christian missionaries arrived in India from 1813 and they also established schools at primary level for Indians in which the language of instruction was local language and also they taught English. After that the missionaries established high schools with English as the language of instruction which gratified the Indians who wanted to study to have a sound knowledge of English Language. The British rulers started building their universities in India from 1857. English turned to be the first language in Indian education. The ‘modern’ leaders of that age in India also substantiated English language and stated it to be the main mean towards victory. Indians who knew good English were considered as the new elite of India. Many new schools were set up in which the language of instruction was English. According to the British government laws the language of instruction at university level was English and therefore schools that stressed English were chosen by ambitious Indians. Even after the independence of India, English continued to be the foremost language of India. Officially English language was given a status of an assistant language and was supposed to cease officially after 15 years of India’s independence, but it still continues to be the significant language of India.

Even today the schools in India that give importance to English are considered better schools and the same is the case at university levels, even though there is a tendency towards Indianization. For a good number of students, English is their first language and it is easier for them to communicate, read and write in English than in Indian languages, including their mother tongues. In the 1970s and 1980s about one third of the Indian schools emphasized English as their first language.

We do have many Indians becoming more and more famous in the English Language and in the English Literature. They have also won a good number of International awards for their knowledge and the mastery in English. One most famous among them is Arundati Roy, who won the prestigious Booker Prize for her novel “The God of small things”. English has become the language of the latest business management in the world and Indian proficiency in English has brought glory to many Indian business managers. English is a means not only for international commerce; it has become increasingly essential for inter-state commerce and communication.

1.1.4. First year college students and their standard of English:

The first year college students of India especially of Tamilnadu come from different medium of higher secondary such as English, Angelo Indian, Tamil, State Board, CBSE and other vernacular medium. Invariably the standard of the English of these students vary significantly. Most of them jump into the college life suddenly without having sufficient knowledge of English language. Though there have been English as a subject in the educational system for nearly ten years in the school life, their knowledge of English is very poor and insufficient. They do struggle in many ways to cope up with the College studies and they are disappointed. Many of them feel inferior and also do not put any effort to improve their standard of English language. Only very few of them come out of their nest and shed their tears to learn and to improve English. The causes for this condition of the students vary from individual to individual. Every student with insufficient knowledge of English so many things to share about it. Hence this study about the first year college going to students of Tamilnadu with a special reference to their standard of English, attempts to explore the hidden and unsolved problems in a significant manner.

1.1.5 Reasons for choosing this topic for my research?

After interacting and relating with the first college students all over Tamilnadu, I do feel and understand the struggles they undergo with regard English Language. Most of the subjects are in English and also the medium of instruction is English. They become inferior and also they do not find the way to improve their standard of English in order to cope up with the new academic life. Hence I have made this study to help them out in my own way.

1.1.6 Aim of My Study

My study thus attempts to render solutions to the problems faced by the students with special reference to English Language learning and communication. Though this study will not remove all the hurdles faced by the first year college going students, it will create an awareness to improve their standard. My study will also uncover all the hidden problems of them and show the reality without any prejudice. As future teachers and professors, we will understand our students in a better and help them out to walk towards the path of success.

Engineering Essays – Implications For Engineers

The balance of employment in civil engineering has moved from the public sector to the private sector. Discuss the implications for engineers in particular and society in general.

Introduction

Civil Engineering is that field of engineering that is involved in the design and construction of roads, bridges, dams, buildings and other public works (civil_engineering.bluerider.com). At some point in time, public facilities were the responsibility of the authority. The authority could have been the kingdom or a government. That is why civil engineers have traditionally been employed principally by the public sector. Everything was run by the government. So everything must be provided and constructed by the same government.

Civil Engineering

However, the field of engineering grew wider and wider over the years. The requirements of the public grew with the population and standard of living. This put increasing pressure on the government. At some point, it was difficult for the government to keep pace with the growing needs and aspirations of the nation. To meet those needs, more buildings and facilities had to be constructed and faster. That was only possible if an increasing number of civil engineers are employed. Managing that growing number of engineers would become taxing on a central government if it did not have a means of sharing that responsibility with the industrial world. At the same time, as the standard of living increased and industrialisation took place, a growing number of facilities were required by individual group of people such as factory owners. These factory owners were willing to pay an individual or a private company to build its factory provided it could build it to his requirements and in time. That is how civil engineers and other related workers started being employed by the private-run companies for private needs. Today, with an economy of this size, the government can only trace the general strategy of development. It cannot go into the details of what should be built for each individual. Construction sector therefore has become a primarily private trade where the buyers and the sellers are private. The government needs to employ just enough to regulate and control the standards.

Status

The repercussions of this drift from the public to the private sector are numerous for the engineer. The first and most important of all is the status and image of the engineer. Despite the fact that the job of the engineer has become increasingly difficult, the image and recognition of the engineer for the rest of the society has declined over the years. Teachers, doctors and lawyers are looked upon as noble professions because they are seen to serve the public interest directly. Engineers are no longer seen that way because they serve a client base that is private. So the modern engineer does not benefit the same respect of the public as his ancient counterpart.

Society’s View

From the society’s point of view, the engineer is a less trust-worthy person today because he is not directly controlled by the government. He is perceived as somebody who is working for money, and not somebody who is working in public service. Consequently, the pubic works are likely to be less reliable. The public eventually has to accept what is offered to him because he does not have a choice. There is no alternative on offer.

Salary

The engineer today has the possibility of getting a higher salary than before. Because he is paid according to the service he dispenses, the more he works or the better quality of work he delivers, the more he is likely to be paid. That is compared to the fact that as a government worker, the engineer would have received the same pay whether he builds one building or ten. However, this also means that the salary will be set by the market. One of the complaints of engineers today is that their salary does not reflect the level of work they perform. At a company level, it is easier to assign a share of the profit to a salesman because he has contributed to a certain amount of turnover. A manager can be associated with the amount of money his department or branch has made. But it is much more difficult to quantify the economic worth of an engineer because his output cannot be measured directly in monetary terms. That is why that despite the fact that the change from public to private sector gives the possibility for a better pay, that possibility is not materialised in reality for the majority of engineers today.

Politics

Governments are run by politicians and politicians have to take account of the perception of the public before taking harsh decisions. That is why traditionally, employment in the public sector is more secure than that in private sector. The government itself cannot be seen to create unemployment. So, one of the incidence of the shift form public to private sector for the engineer is that today, his job is less secure than before.

Specialisation

With the development of technology and the pursuit of knowledge, the field of civil engineering has become so vast now that a civil engineer cannot possibly know everything about the field. This has led to specialisation of trade. Today, a civil engineer can be either a structural engineer or a highway engineer or a geotechnical engineer or any one of the various facets of civil engineering.

Efficiency

Civil engineers and civil engineering companies can be said to be more efficient today than the days when civil works were done by public sector. Privatisation of construction work has led to faster construction work because now companies have to operate in a competitive market. Competition in construction has benefited mostly to the society because now, more facilities is constructed faster, at cheaper costs, and the end product is more attractive. So, one of the repercussions on the society at large is that it has benefited from a more efficient civil engineering industry.

Conclusion

The implications of the shift in the balance of employment in civil engineering from the public sector to the private sector to the engineer can be summarised in terms of change in salary structure, change in image, in type of job, job security among others. For the society, it is mainly a more efficient industry but with more doubtful reliability.

References

1.      http://civil_engineering.bluerider.com/wordsearch/civil_engineering

Bibliography

.        Journal of Professional Issues in Engineering Education and Practice, American Society of Civil Engineer, 1991

.        Tarsh, Jason, Graduate Shortages in Science and Engineering, Department of Employment, 1985

Substation And Equipment Surge Protection Engineering Essay

Substation and Equipment Surge Protection: Types, characteristics, related calculations, examples with applications for industrial systems

Gautami BhattAbstract-This paper describes the various types of surge protectors, their types and characteristics. This paper will also describes lightning surge arrestors, about them and how the power system is protected against them.

Index Terms-surge, lightening, switching, BIL, insulation, protection, substation

INTRODUCTION

Each electrical equipment should have a long service life of more than 25 years. The conductors are supported on insulators/embedded in insulation system. The internal and external insulation is continually exposed to normal voltages and occasional abnormal voltages. These abnormal voltages include temporary over voltages at power frequency, lightening surges and switching surges.

Over voltages at power frequency have a low over voltage factor but a longer duration while the latter have higher voltage duration and lesser duration. Protection against power frequency over voltages is achieved by employing an over voltage relay at the secondary of a transformer or by using an Inverse definite-Minimum Time Overvoltage Relay.

Protection against transient voltage surges is achieved by the help of Surge arrtestors. The surge arrestors, coordinated spark gaps, surge suppressors, over heard ground wires, neutral earthing, shunt capacitors etc. are located strategically to intercept the lightening surges or to reduce the peak and rate of rise of surges.

Protective systems for the different abnormal voltages act at different speeds depending on the over voltage. Temporary power frequency over voltage occurs for anything between ms to s and hence the over voltage relay acts within 70ms. Lightening surges last for micro seconds and thus typically the surge arrestor acts within 1.2micro seconds. Switching surges are in the range of a couple of hundred micro seconds and surge arrestors for them are typically designed for 100micro seconds.

This paper focuses on lightening surges, their types, protection against them, and the different types of lightning surge arrestors.

LIGHTENING OVER-VOLTAGES

Lightening

Benjamin Franklin (1706-90) performed his famous experiment (1745) of kite flying in thunder cloud. Before his discovery lightening was considered to be “Act of God”. Franklin proved that the lightening stroke was due to discharge of electricity. Franklin also invented lightening rods to be fixed on tall buildings and earthed to protect them from lightening strokes.

The large spark accompanied by light produced by an abrupt, discontinuous discharge of electricity through the air, from the clouds generally under turbulent conditions of atmosphere is called lightening.

Representative values of a lightening stroke:

Voltage: 200MV

Current: 40MA

Duration: 10^-5 sec

KW:8×10^9

KWh:22

Energy:

An overhead conductor accumulates statically induced charge when charged clouds come above the conductor. If the cloud is swept away from its place, the charges on the conductor are released. The charge travels on either sides giving rise to two travelling waves. The earth wire does not prevent such surges.

Another curious phenomenon is the unpredictable paths of lightening strokes. Normally they try to reach the earth and are therefore intercepted by lightning rods, trees, tall structures, etc. Empire state building has been struck by lightning several times. However some lightning strokes do not observe any rules and travel in all sorts of Haphazard fashion.

A B type stroke occurs due to sudden change in the charges of the cloud. If cloud 1 suddenly discharges to cloud 2, there is a sudden change in the charge on cloud 3. A discharge that occurs between cloud 3 and earth is called B stroke. Such stroke does not hit lightening rod, or earth wire. No protection can be provided to the over head line against such strokes.

Attractive effect of Over Head ground wire and earth rods (MASTS):

Earth rods (also called lightning rod) are placed on tall buildings. These are connected to the earth. The positive charges accumulate on the sharp points of the lightning rods; this is why lightning strokes are attracted to them. The earth wires are placed above the over head transmission lines. At every tower this wire is grounded. The positive charges accumulate on this wire. The negatively charged strokes are attracted by the earth wire. In absence of the earth wire the lightening stroke would strike the line conductors causing flashovers in transmission line.

Earth wires do not provide 100% protection. Weak strokes are not attracted by earth wires. B type strokes are not attracted by earth wires. None the less earth wire has proved to be a good solution to very dangerous direct strokes.

Earth wires have a shielding angle. The conductors coming in the shielding zone are protected against direct strokes. The shielding angle is between 30 to 40 degrees. An angle is 35 degrees is said to be economical and satisfactory for Overhead lines.

Overhead Shielding Screen (earthed)

The equipments in a substation are protected from direct lightning strikes by one of the following ways.

Overhead shielding scree(Earthed). Covering the overhead lines approaching the substation

Lightning Masts installed at strategic locations in the switchyard. The tower-top is earthed. Mast is an independent structure.

According to IEC masts are preferred for outdoor switchyards upto 33KV. For 66KV and above, the lightning masts become too tall and uneconomical. The overhead shielding wires are preferred because they give adequate protection and the height of structures in the substation provided with overhead shielding wires is comparatively less than that for the lightning masts

The entire switchyard is provided with earthed overhead shielding screen. The size of conductor is usually 7/9SWG, galvanized steel round stranded conductor.

Transmission line conductors are protected by overhead shielding conductor (earthed). The shielding angle (alpha) is defined as follows. A vertical line is drawn from the earth wire. Angle alpha is plotted on each side of this vertical line. The envelope within angle 2alpha is called the zone of protection.

The shielding angle according to ANSI is defined as 30 degrees while in the IEC world it is 45 degrees.

The clearance between phase conductor and overhead shielding wire should be more than minimum phase to earth clearance.

Lightning Strikes on Over Head Lines

These can be the following: Direct strikes on line conductor, direct stroke on tower top, direct stroke on ground wire and indirect stroke or B stroke on overhead line conductor.

Direct strikes on overhead lines are the most harmful. The voltage being of the order several million volts, the insulators flashover, puncture, and get shattered. The wave travels to both sides shattering line insulators, until the surge is dissipated sufficiently. The wave travels to both sides shattering line insulators, until the surge is dissipated sufficiently. The wave reaches the substation and produces stress on equipment insulators. At times these strikes are prevented from striking the line conductor. All high voltage overhead lines are protected by earth conductors. This mesh covers the complete switchyard.

Direct Strokes on tower-top

Consider,

L = inductance,

I = Current in tower,

R =Effective resistance of tower.

e = voltage surge between tower-top and earth.

So if the change in current with respect to time is 10KA/ and the resistance is 5 ohms and inductance being 10micro Henry. Then e will be 200KV. This surge voltage appears between the tower top and earth. The line conditions are virtually at earth potential because of neutral grounding. Hence voltage appears between the tower top and earth. The line conductors are virtually at earth potential because of neutral grounding. Hence its voltage appears between line conductors and tower-top. If this surge voltage exceeds impulse flash-over level, a flash-over occurs between the tower and the line conductor. Therefore the resistance is kept low for each tower.

A direct stroke on earth wire in the mid-span can cause a flashover between line conductor and earth wire or line conductor and tower.

Indirect strikes on line conductor can have the same effect as direct stroke on conductor. They are more harmful for distribution lines but are not significant for EHV lines. Other factors are low tower footing resistance insulation level of lines. For lines rated above 110KV voltage level, the line insulation is high and back flashovers are rare. For line between 11KV and 33KV, the insulation of lines is relatively low and back flashovers are likely to occur.

Protective devices against lightning surges

Several devices are used in order to protect the power system against lightning surges. An overview of them is given here while some are discussed in detail.

A. Overview of protective devices against lightening surges

Device

Where Applied

Remarks

Rod gaps

across insulator string,

bushing insulator,

support insulator

Difficult to coordinate

Flashover voltage varies by

Create dead short circuit

Cheap

Over heat ground wires (earthed)

Above overhead lines

Above substation area

Provides effective protection against direct strokes on line conductors, towers, substation equipment

Vertical Masts

In substations

Used instead of providing overhead shielding wires

Lightning spikes/rods (earthed)

Above tall buildings

Protects buildings against direct strokes. Angle of protection between 30 to 40

Lightning arrestors

On incoming lines in each substation

Near terminals of transformers and generators

Pole mounted on distribution lines

Diverts overvoltage to earth without causing short-circuit

Used at every voltage level in every substation and for each line

Phase to ground

Surge absorbers

Near rotating machines or switchgear

Across series reactor valves

Resistance capacitance combination absorbs the over voltage surge and reduces steepness of wave

B. Rod gaps

The simplest protection of line insulators, equipment insulators and bushings is given by Rod gaps or coordinating gaps. The conducting rods are provided between line terminal and earthed terminal of the insulator with an adjustable gap. The medium in the gap is air. The rods are approximately 12mm in dia. or square. The gap is adjusted to breakdown at about 20% below flash-over voltage of insulator. The distance between arc path and insulator should be more than 1/3 of the gap length.

Precise protection is not possible by rod gaps. The break-down voltage varies with polarity, steepness and wave-shape, weather. The power frequency currents continue to flow even after the high voltage surge has vanished. This creates an earth fault only to be interrupted by a circuit breaker. Operation of rod gap therefore leads to discontinuity of supply. The advantage of gap is low cost and easy adjustment on site. For more precise operation, surge arrestors are used.

Horngaps, the gap between the horns is less at the bottom and large at the top. An arc is produced at the bottom during high voltage surge. This arc commutes along the horn due to electromagnetic field action and length increases. The arc may blow out.

Impulse ratio of protective devices is the ratio of breakdown voltage on specified impulse wave to breakdown voltage at power frequency.

Typical impulse ratio values are

Sphere gap: 1

Rod gap: 1.6 to 3

Horn gap: 2 to 3

LIGHTNING ARRESTORS

Surge arrestors are usually connected between phase and ground in the distribution system; around the terminals of large medium voltage rotating machines and in HV, EHV, HVDC sub-stations to protect the apparatus insulation from lightning surges and switching surges.

The resistor blocks in the surge arrestor offer low resistance to high voltage surge and divert the high voltage surge to ground. Thereby the insulation of the protected installation is not subjected to the full surge voltage. The surge voltage does not create short-circuit like rod gaps and retains the residual voltage across its terminals.

Surge arrestor discharges current impulse surge to earth and dissipates energy in the form of heat.

After discharging the impulse wave to the earth, the resistor blocks in the surge arrester offers a very high resistance to normal power frequency voltage, acting like an open circuit.

Some of the types of surge arresters being used today in the industry are

Gapped-Silicon-carbide Surge arrestors called the valve-type or conventional Gapped arrestors. These consist of silicon-carbide discs in series with spark gap units.

Zinc-Oxide Gapless Arrestors called the ZnO Arrestors or metal oxide arrestors. These are gapless and consist of Zinc oxide discs in series. ZnO arrestors have superior V/I characteristics and higher energy absorption level. They are preferred for EHV and HVDC installations.

Fig.1-A ZnO surge arrestor[1]

Gap-type Sic Arrestors are connected between phase and earth. It consists of silicon-carbide resistor elements in series with gap elements. The resistor elements offer non-linear resistance at power frequencies, the resistor elements in series offer high resistance with gap elements. The resistor elements offer non linear resistance, at power frequency frequency over voltages, the resistance offered is large. For discharge currents the resistance is low. The gap unit consists of air gaps of appropriate length. During normal voltages, the surge arrestor does not conduct. When a surge wave travelling along the line reaches the surge arrester, the gap breaks down. Since the resistance being offered to it is low, the wave is diverted to earth. After a few micro seconds the normal frequency wave reappears across the arrester. Therefore arc current in gap unit reduces and the voltage across the gap is not enough to keep up the arc. Therefore the current flowing to the earth s automatically interrupted by and normal condition is restored. Thus, the high voltage surge is discharged to earth and the insulation of the equipments connected to it are protected.

Fig.2- Charecteristics of ZnO block[1]

CLASSIFICATION OF SURGE ARRESTORS

Surge arresters can be classified based on voltage, current, and energy capability as follows

Station Type

Line Type

Distribution Type

Standard normal current peak(A)

10,000

5000

2500:1500

Voltage rating

(Kv rms)

3.3-245

3.3-123

Upto 3.3

Application

Large power stations and large substations

Intermediate and medium substations

Distribution system; rural distribution

SURGE ARRESTORS, SPECIFICATION AND TERMS

Some of the terms and definitions related to surge arrestors are given here in order to better understand the content given in this paper.

Surge Arrestor is a device designed to protect electrical equipment from transient high voltage, to limit the duration and amplitude of the follow current.

Non-linear resistor. The part of the arrester which offers a low resistance to the flow of discharge currents thus limiting the voltage across the arrestor terminals and high resistance to power frequency voltage, thus limiting the magnitude of follow current.

Rated voltage of the arrester is the maximum permissible RMS voltage between the line terminal of the arrestor as designated by the manufacturer.

It should be noted that all equipments are rated by the phase to phase voltage rating but for surge arresters phase to ground rating is the rated voltage.

Follow Current is the current that flows from connected power source through lightening arrester following the passage of the passage of the discharge current

Normal discharge current is the surge current that flows through the surge arrester after the spark over, expressed in crest value (peak value) for a specified wave. This term is used in classifying surge arrester as station type, line type distribution type.

Discharge current is the current flowing through the surge arrester after the spark over.

Power frequency spark-over voltage is the rms value of the power frequency voltage applied between the line and earth terminals of arrester and earth which causes spark over of the series gap.

Impulse spark over voltages. Highest value of voltage attained during an impulse of given polarity, of specified wave shape applied between the line terminal and the earth of an arrester before the flow of discharge current.

Residual Voltage (discharge voltage) is the voltage that appears between the line terminals and earth during the passage of the discharge current.

Rated current of a surge arrester is the maximum impulse current at which the peak discharge residual voltage is determined.

Coefficient of earthing is the ratio of the highest rms voltage of healthy phase to earhh to the phase to phase nominal voltage time hundred expressed in percentage during an earth fault on one phase.

Thus, for an effectively earthed system the coefficient of earthing Ce < 0.8

Therefore surge arrester voltage is

Ua > 0.8 * Um rms

Surge voltage (Vs) KV instantaneous is taken as 2.5 times Critical Flash Over Voltage (CFOV) of line insulation. Therefore discharge current Ia is given by

. TESTS ON SURGE ARRESTERS

The following are the list of standard tests performed on a surge arrester according to the IEC

1/50 impulse spark over test.

Wave front impulse sparkover test.

Peak discharge residual voltage at low current.

Peak discharge residual voltage at rated diverter current.

Impulse current withstand test.

Switching-impulse voltage test.

Discharge capability of durability.

Transmission line discharge test.

Low current long-duration test.

Power duty cycle test.

Pressure-relief test.

Acknowledgment

The author would like to sincerely thank and express her gratitude to Prof. Robert Spiewak for his guidance and support and the references he provided.

K.C. Agrawal, Industrial Power engineering applications handbook, Newnes Power Engineering Series

S. Rao, Switchgear Protection and Power systems, Khanna Publications

IEEE Std. 141, IEEE Recommended Practice for electrical Power distribution for industrial plants

Gautami Bhatt (MEE’10) is a M.E.E in Power and Control Engineering from the University of Houston.

Activist Reflector Theorist And Pragmatist Education Essay

First of all, activists learning style engage oneself totally without unfairness in fresh ideals. It makes them passionate concerning everything new. They like to have a go, plenty of variety and try things out and participate. Theorists always like concepts and models. They choose to be perfectionists who will not take it easy until things are well organised. They like to see the overall picture and structure. Moreover, pragmatists are eager on experimenting ideas, skills and theories to see if that will work in practice. They completely look out for new ideas and acquire the first chance toward testing applications. Lastly, reflectors are fond of reserved to deliberate on experiences and examine them from numerous perspectives. They gather information first hand and like to reflect about it carefully prior to conclusion (Honey and Mumford 2006).

Furthermore, majority of people have a preference in relating to participating in, taking in and processing report to permit individuals to learn. People take on diverse learning styles where best allows them to learn more excellent way. So far, there has been a huge test with the aim to change a person’s learning style. Conversely, students and a lot of professionals note down that, learning achieved from practical experience are far better than in lectures. Making certain that, any student that has a good learning outcome, it is imperative that the learning setting is sensibly and competently helpful to everyone learning within it. Nursing training adds high price on knowledge in the clinical environment; the quality of these clinical setting has a considerable influence on learning process for student nurses (Fritz 2002).

Honey and Mumford (2006) added that, though lots of individual had two or more learning styles, they may also have a one preference style. To guarantee myself a good learning experience on placement, it is essential for me as student nurse to be conscious about all preferred learning style, as this is crucial element for nursing program. When I was in placement, I observe my mentor, like to work as an activist and as student nurse, I adept her learning style. Seeing that in placement, the mentor acts as a teacher. It is then required for a student nurse to mature into the progress of their learning needs (Morton-Cooper and Palmer 2000).

Having said that, the Honey and Mumford questionnaire score’s me as someone with a high reflector mindset. I consent with the greater part of the report of a reflector, which totally confirms me. For Reflectors, before action is taking, they think about things very cautiously. Due to the style of my learning, I like to listen and observe my colleagues in groups but would not get myself involve with any kind of group’s sessions. For me to learn effectively and successfully on this programme, I have some assurance that, if I change some of my ways and practice a style likes an activist, it will help me approach things differently and overcome some of my weakness. Hence, encourage me to get involved in any forms group sessions (Honey and Mumford, 2006).

In spite of my weakness, I am a very attentive person, as this is one of the potentials of a reflector. I totally consent along this because I constantly akin to pay attention to each person in the group attentively. The opportunity of gaining from diverse viewpoint and different angles has help with my findings. Nonetheless, a likely weakness that I have found within me as a reflector is that, I take too long in doing certain duties. For instance, all through my previous assignment, I spent lengthy time to finish it, because my preparation stage took me a long time to get ready. I used up a long time in searching for ideas prior to starting my assignment, this may be due to me, being extra careful on how am going to write this assignment.

Even though, this brings out my careful mindset, I do not have the same opinion with the report that someone who is reflector does not take risks. I sometimes like to tread out of my ease to experience new things I have never done before to expand my knowledge. For instance, I chose to leave my home and common environment in London to study in Hertfordshire. The more relaxed and secure a student feels inside the surroundings, there is expectation that the learning outcome, become successful (Kenworthy and Nicklin 2000).

On the other hand, as a student nurse, it is essential to know that, at present we have diverse learning theories and styles to think about. There has been writing down concerning the means in which people learn and many theories on the ways of effectively learning. The talk was that, Behaviorism, Cognitive and Humanism are the key theories. In terms of Humanistic theory, it is build on faith that individual possess two essential desires, a call for development and a call for good view through others. It also shows as the most holistic approach because it is interested in the way in which it compels and inspires a person to learn. These theories too relay on largely on the pressure of the surroundings that might hold back or assist the learning path. Behaviorism theory, the learning surroundings is essential to knowledge, and if these surroundings are perfect, learning comes, as links are made with encouragement, feedback and support. The Cognitive theory indicate learning like an internal procedure that include high order rational actions like remembrance, thoughts, analytic, insight and way of thinking (Reece and Walker 2003).

However, as it is vital for me to enhance my learning skill as a reflector. I have planned a number of ways to help me succeed on this programme. As my weaker style is activist, the initial part of my plan is to create opportunities to initiate and to participate and have fun in group discussion in class. These will give me a head up, as to situation that will possibly require action without planning in lectures. It has been noted that discovery of learning strategies in union with person learner preferences is key action in keeping and developing the value of learning programme. The improved potential learning opportunity and result gain from such discovery might have a supportive impact on me as a student nurse (Bastable 2003).

Besides, when I become conscious of my preferred learning style and the teaching style of my mentor in practice is different. I work out an action plan to support myself and to go on to succeed in this practice, I have to support my weaker style to get used to classroom environment by accepting my preferred learning style, though I am Reflector learner. Nevertheless, research establishes that, growing variety of tuition means used, have not been connected with an enhancement knowledge result. However, the truth is that, throughout developing students’ understanding of their individual learning style, student are enhanced to take charge for their own learning, which improved their learning results (Fritz 2002).

Upon reflection, I think learning styles assist me to recognise myself and allow me to identify how to develop myself. With the assessment outcome, I discern and know myself better and have learned from different learning styles. This has thought me why understanding of learning styles is useful to me as a student nurse. Reflection can be use to evaluate, realisation and study through our live experience. Reflective practice is another means you can gain knowledge from experience. In terms of training for healthcare professions, it is identified as a fundamental instrument intended for students to build the relations connecting theory and practice. As a student nurse, it is important for me to realise the worth of reflecting upon my experiences in learning to enhance my prospect studies (Jasper 2003).

In conclusion, all the way through this module, I boast of higher comprehension and important consciousness of different learning styles. I have been confident towards my own prefer learning style; hence enable me toward completely support myself in my weaker style. Understanding learning styles has undoubtedly revealed the force that it can have on me as student nurse. I currently believe that, I am more prepared to incorporate my preferred learning styles into practice.

The Pathogenesis Diagnosis And Treatment Of Leishmaniasis Health Essay

Leishmaniasis is a tropical, protozoan disease caused exclusively by intracellular parasites belonging to the genus Leishmania. Leishmaniasis is a worldwide problem and due to the various species of Leishmania, can manifest in humans as 3 main clinical forms: Cutaneous Leishmaniasis, Mucocutaneous Leishmaniasis, or Visceral Leishmaniasis. Consequently, the severity of the infection and symptoms differ from self healing infections that produce significant scars to the fatal infections.

Pathogenesis

Leishmaniasis is transmitted by the bite of female insect vector sand flies of the species Phlebotomus in the Old World and Luzomyia in the New World (Figure 1). The life cycle for all Leishmania species is relatively simple and similar (Figure 2).

When the sand fly takes a blood meal, it inoculates the source with the 2-3 mm long parasite. At this stage, the Leishmania parasite is known as a promastigote as it contains a singular flagellum. Promastigotes are injected into the host skin, after which they attach themselves to the hosts’ macrophages, and are induced by phagocytosis. These white blood cells are present at the inoculation site because of the hosts’ natural immune response to the sand fly bite. Once inside the macrophages, the promastigotes transform into their non-flagellate form, known as amastigotes. From here the amastigotes reproduce by binary fission and continue to proliferate within the white blood cells until the cell bursts. The parasites are then free to infect and invade other reticulo-endothelial cells, which share the same fate and are destroyed due to the reproduction of amastigotes within. The amastigotes and infected macrophages enter the blood circulation.

The life cycle of Leishmania is continued when a female sand fly feeds on the infected hosts’ blood and the amastigotes are taken up by the sand flies. Amastigotes transform into promastigotes, which proliferate by binary fission in the midgut of the sand fly over a period of 4-25 days (WHO, 2010). Hereafter, the promastigotes migrate to the fly proboscis or ‘mouthparts’, where the parasite can infect a new host during feeding (Murray et al, 2009) and thus the Leishmania lifecycle is continued.

Mammals are more often reservoirs for infection. As well as humans; dogs, rodents, wolves and foxes are examples of common reservoirs (Neuber, 2008) and thus, can suffer from leishmaniasis diseases too.

Figure 2: The life cycle of Leishmania. Adapted from Chappuis et al (2007).

Figure 1: A Sand fly vector of Leishmania parasites. Extracted from Neuber (2008).

Epidemiology

Leishmaniasis is endemic in 88 countries, 72 of which are developing countries. An estimated 12 million people are infected with leishmaniasis and 70,000 people die each year (Reithinger et al, 2007). There are currently about 350 million people worldwide that are at risk and threatened by leishmaniasis because they live within 40° north and south of the equator (Jones et al., 2005; Neuber, 2008) and according to the World Health Organisation (2010), there are an estimated 1-2 million new cases each year.

There are approximately 20 species of Leishmania which are pathogenic for humans (Chappuis et al., 2007). These species vary in their geographical location and have an effect on the leishmaniasis which manifests (Table 1).

Cutaneous leishmaniasis is the most common form of leishmaniasis and is endemic in over 70 countries worldwide (Figure 3). It is found throughout Africa and the Middle East in Afghanistan, Algeria, Iran, Iraq, Kabul, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Syria; however, more particularly in South America, in Brazil and Peru (Reithinger et al, 2007; Murray et al, 2009).

Over 90% mucocutaneous leishmaniasis often occurs in Bolivia, Brazil and Peru and the majority (over 90%) of visceral leishmaniasis cases, the most dangerous form, is localised to 6 countries; Bangladesh, Brazil, Ethiopia, India, Nepal and Sudan. There are an estimated 500,000 new cases of visceral leishmaniasis each year (WHO, 2010; Chappuis et al., 2007).

Figure 3: Geographical distribution of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis. Extracted from Reithinger et al (2007).

Main Clinical Presentation

Leishmania Parasite

Main Geographical Distribution

Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

L. tropica*

Africa, Asia, Middle East, Mediterranean area

Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

L. major*

Middle East, Africa

Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

L. aethiopia*

Ethiopia, Kenya

Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

L. amazonesis ^

South America (Brazil, Venezuela)

Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

L .columbiensis ^

Northern South America (Columbia, Panama)

Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

L. garnhami ^

South America (Venezuela)

Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

L. peruviana ^

Peru, Panama, Costa Rica, Columbia

Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

L. venezuelensis ^

Northern South America (Venezuela)

Mucocutaneous Leishmaniasis

L. braziliensis ^

Central and South America

Visceral Leishmaniasis

L. donovani*

Africa, Asia

Visceral Leishmaniasis

L. infantum (L. chagasi)

Europe, north Africa, Central and South America, Mediterranean area

Table 1: Overview of clinical presentation and geographical distribution of species of Leishmaniasis that cause human disease. L. = Leishmania. * Leishmania species of the Old World. ^ Leishmania species of the New world. Data adapted from Reithinger et al (2007), Neuber (2008) and Murray et al (2009).

Clinical Presentation

Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a localised reaction at the inoculation site, which tends to be uncovered areas such as the face, hands and lower legs. Between 2 weeks and 2 months after the sand fly’s bite, a red papule forms. The area begins to swell and become irritated and after 3-4 weeks, flat ulcers form which eventually harden and form crusted margins. The volcano-like lesions that form can heal without treatment; however, sufferers are commonly left with significant, disfiguring scars.

Mucocutaneous Leishmaniasis

Mucocutaneous leishmaniasis, also known as espundia, is most often caused by Leishmania viannia braziliensis and has a similar incubation time as cutaneous leishmaniasis. However, this form causes more devastating disfigurement to disease sufferers as the parasites metastasise towards to the mucosal membranes and destroy them and nearby unrelated tissue structures also (Murray et al, 2009). This form is more commonly seen after a primary infection of cutaneous leishmaniasis, where the lesions have eventually healed. Untreated lesions can transform into mucocutaneous forms and year later the oral and nasal mucosas become infected. Inflammation of the nose, mouth, oropharynx and trachea cause sever mutilation and facial disfigurement. Death can sometimes arise as mucosal lesions do not self-heal and prolonged infection compromises both immune and respiratory systems.

Visceral Leishmaniasis

Visceral leishmaniasis, also known as, kala-azar, dumdum fever or black fever, is the most severe form of leishmaniasis, and if left untreated, those infected will die. It is the most dangerous because parasites leave the skin and colonise the entire reticulo-endothelial system (Neuber, 2008) and spread to internal organs. Incubation period may be from several weeks to a year and can present as a rapidly fatal disease or as an asymptomatic, self-limiting infection (Murray et al, 2009). As the parasites proliferate and destroy the host’s cells, sufferers present with a marked enlargement of the liver, spleen lymph nodes as well as fatigue, weight loss, fever chills, severe anaemia and kidney damage. Death is caused by haemorrhage, complications relating to anaemia or a weakened immune system which cannot deal with bacterial co-infections (Chappuis et al, 2007).

As is the case with all forms of leishmaniasis, the chances of the sufferer developing a secondary infection, such as a bacterial infection, are very high and doing so, can complicate the disease further and may lead to death.

To add: one photo for each CL, ML and VL.

Canine Leishmaniasis

Leishmania infantum not only cause severe disease in humans, but in dogs also. Millions of dogs in Europe, Asia, North Africa, and South America are affected by the parasite. There are some clinical manifestations of the disease in dogs which re similar to that of humans including cutaneous alterations, enlargement of lymph nodes, liver and spleen, weight loss and glomerulopathy. As well as this, ocular lesions, epistaxis (nose bleeds), onycogryphosis (abnormal curving of claws) and lameness (disability in walking) are classic symptoms found in infected dogs (Maia and Campino, 2008). As with visceral leishmaniasis, canine leishmaniasis may also present as an asymptomatic infection, thus delaying necessary treatment.

Diagnosis

Due to the clinical presentations of the disease, a diagnosis can be made; however, for a definitive diagnosis the Leishmania parasite must be detected to confirm the diagnosis. Parasitological techniques are routinely used and involve demonstrating promastigotes in a direct examination of tissue aspirates, or detecting amastigotes in biopsy specimens, which are then, examined using a microscope.

Serological techniques to diagnose leishmaniasis are based upon indirectly identifying specific host humoural and cell-mediated responses after inoculation of the parasite. Diagnostic methods include direct agglutination test (DAT), the immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT), the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), immunoblotting and antigen detection.

Molecular techniques involve detecting leishmanial DNA or RNA have been beneficial in not only diagnosis, but species identification also. The molecular techniques include using various versions of polymerase chain reactions (PCR) to amplify species specific parasite sequences, DNA probes, monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) and isoenzyme electrophoresis.

Treatment

All forms of leishmaniasis should be treated due to their mortality and morbidity consequences. Drugs are available to treat the disease and choice for all forms is the pentavalent antimonial compound sodium stibogluconate (Pentostam).

Cutaneous leishmaniasis is also treated with injections of other antimonial compounds, such as fluconazole and litefosine, directly into the infected lesions (* Figure). Miltefosine has also proven to be an effective treatment for visceral leishmaniasis (Murray et al, 2009).

However, as with all drug treatments, the development of drug resistance is a huge issue and over use of this drug in previous years could lead to Leishmania species becoming resistant. As well as this, there are considerable side effects associated with most drugs (Neuber, 2008). A safe and effective vaccine against the various species is urgently required particularly in endemic areas; however, there is currently no vaccine available although work to develop one is still ongoing.

(To add: * Figure of such treatment)

Social and Economical Implications

Leishmaniasis is found in developing countries or the poorer regions of a country and thus commonly affects the poorest of the poor. Having such a disease can cause many problems in the lives of those infected and their families as they become poorer due to the direct and high costs of diagnosis and treatment of the disease, and the indirect costs such as loss of income (Chappuis et al, 2007).

Another impact of the disease is the social and psychological stigma associated with leishmaniasis, because of the disfigurement and significant scarring caused. Thus, even after the disease has been treated or self-healed, patients must deal with a constant reminder of what they had to endure.

Cheap, rapid and accurate diagnostic methods are needed to allow all those infected, especially the poor, to get the medical attention they need, and to also allow treatment to start as soon as possible thus ensuring symptoms may not be as detrimental.

Project Aims

The aim of this project is to compare the different methods for diagnosis of leishmaniasis in humans and dogs. These methods will be critically analysed in order to test the following hypothesis: ‘A Leishmania infection can be detected unequivocally’. In doing so, the necessary requirements for a correct diagnosis for those who live in endemic areas and for those whom leishmaniasis is a threat, will also be discussed.

Assessment Of Community Resource Management Environmental Sciences Essay

This is a community development planning study which examined the resource management capacity of selected barangays given the prevailing mindset of people (i.e. no sense of ownership of local resources), how local organizations worked to effect protection and development of these resources, and how the stakeholders managed these resources. To pursue with this aim, the study covered barangays Ayala, Talisayan, Pamucutan, La Paz, Cawit and Tulungatung – west coast of Zamboanga City. It utilized Participatory Resource Appraisal (PRA) in data gathering. Data gathered were subjected to SWOT analysis.

Results of the study revealed that the communities’ resources are so vast and rich which barangay officials cannot manage alone. LGUs have laudable resource management plans that need people’s cooperation to implement. However, people do not participate because they believe this is LGUs’ sole responsibility. Meanwhile, investors, mostly outsiders, have more access to resources, which some over-utilize and/or pollute with industrial wastes.

Results of the study, therefore, indicated a need for barangay officials and the people to build their capacity to effectively manage community resources through collaborative efforts in all stages of development. Thus, the study recommended a resource management action planning to be participated in by both barangay officials and sector representatives.

Introduction

Natural resources are the foundation from which the rural poor can overcome poverty. (Ferrer, et al, 1996). However, in a country like the Philippines which is noted for its rich and vast natural resources, it is a paradox that poverty continues to reign especially among rural folks.

Although poverty alleviation and sustainable development are components of Philippine government programs, planning has been concentrated at the higher echelon of government bureaucracy leading to a top down approach which fails to attain participation of concerned communities leaving no feeling of ownership in the programs implemented. Local level participation and grassroots initiatives are key elements in any community resource management effort. (Ferrer, et al. 1996).

One of the approaches which placed emphasis on community involvement in management of resources and social justice is community-based coastal resource management. Community-based Coastal Resource Management (CBCRM) is one of the most significant approaches used because of its emphasis on both natural resources and social justice. Its roots come from two strains of civil society movements in the Philippines, namely: environmental conservation and human rights. It undertakes Community Resource Management in the context of community transformation by ensuring social and economic equity, holistic and integrated management, and sustainable livelihood and development. Community-based natural resource management (CBNRM) is one of the most important manifestations of true decentralization as it relates to control of rural resources. CBNRM programs, if successful, can be models of local empowerment, imbuing communities with greater authority over the use of natural resources. Under the right circumstances, they can also bring important benefits to poor people and poor communities (Holmes & Cooper, 2005).

The ECSOM (Ecosystem-Based Community-Centered Sustainable Development Organization and Management) proposed by the Maximo Kalaw Institute for Sustainable Development, is also one such community-based sustainable development framework. ECSOM provides the local government and other sectors, the framework for designing and instituting programs for economic development and poverty alleviation, and affirms what is already provided for in the 1987 Constitution and Local Government Code of 1991 (Roxas S.K., 2007).

A study is deemed necessary in establishing an ecosystem-based community-centered sustainable development organization and participatory management preparatory and pre-feasibility phase. As such, emphasis is put on expanding participation beyond consultation. It is making the people not mere data sources but also involving them in the process of data gathering and in building their aspirations, needs and abilities toward a just, equitable and sustainable future for all. On this principle was this study anchored, as conducted in barangays Ayala, Talisayan, Pamucutan, Lapaz, Cawit and Tulungatung which form the ECSOM cluster in the west coast of Zamboanga City.

Method

The study covered the whole communities of the six barangays in the west coast of Zamboanga City, as the main subjects of the study. Specifically, it mobilized the following stakeholders from each community: barangay officials represented by the Chairperson, Kagawads and Sangguniang Kabataan, the Barangay Health Workers, Day Care Workers, Purok leaders and PO leaders, and representatives of sectors such as; farmers, fisherfolks, women, youth and factory workers.

The study used primarily the Participatory Resource Appraisal (PRA) procedure that enabled participants to unravel and analyze their situation, and in acting/planning on their own. The PRA is an approach that evolved from a series of qualitative multidisciplinary approach to learning about local-level conditions and local people’s perspective including agro ecosystem analysis (IBRD/WB, 1998). It seeks to generate knowledge and then to use that knowledge to empower the participants as they create solutions to the problems they face. Outcomes are focused not only on the creation of that change, but also on individual and group empowerment, and the creation of a heightened sense of self-esteem through ownership of the process and the solution (Palloff, 1996, p. 47). Secondary data were also collected and analyzed to generate the barangay profiles and served as input to the development planning process.

Four phases marked the assessment process. (1) emergence and development of research design which was inspired and influenced by the Ecosystems-Based Community Centered for Sustainable Development Organization and Management (ECSOM); (2) pre-study consultation with respective officials and stakeholders of concerned communities to present the proposed study and agree as to its purpose, scope and coverage, and to generate commitment of stakeholders to participate in the process; (3) mobilization and engagement which entailed the formation and orientation of the PRA team. The actual data collection used PRA tools (resource mapping, social services mapping, production flow chart, seasonality diagram, organizational matrix, historical transect, pie chart of household income and expenditure) facilitated through workshops and focused-group discussions conducted in the six barangays with the people as partners in data collection and analysis. Analysis of data was done on the spot by local research participants during the presentation of workshop outputs that provided opportunity for checking and feedback, triangulation of findings from three (3) sources (e.g. workshops, focus group discussion and interview with identified key informants, and secondary data) to determine trends and priorities, subjecting data gathered to SWOT analysis, and conducting of consolidation workshops and data validation; and (4) action planning which was a two-pronged process of (a) strategic planning that resulted in the formulation of the 3-year development plan and 1-year investment plan of the barangays consolidated as a cluster plan for the 6 barangays; and (b) institution building which included formation of a viable organizational structure required to operate and implement the cluster plan, complete with vision and mission.

Based on the conceptual flow of the study, the primary source (input) in data gathering was the production sectors in the community which included the agricultural and fishery sectors as well as the local government, community-based people organizations, non-government organizations, and the business sector. The data gathered from the participants were used to determine the state of resource management practice of the community in terms of availability, access, utilization and sustainability.

Results

In order to determine the community resource management capacity of the six barangays, results of the assessment were classified as follows: (a) natural resource (specifically pertaining to the main production sectors i.e. agriculture, fishery and forest resources); (b) basic social services; (c) community infrastructure; and (d) organizational management/ governance.

Results of the study revealed a vast and rich natural resource base for the six barangays which comprises of the production sectors such as agriculture and fishery. About a 30-kilometre shoreline traverses the coastlines of barangays Ayala, Cawit and Talisayan – a primary source of fish, lobsters and other marine products for small-scale fishermen. It provides great economic opportunities for both local and foreign investors who engage in fishing, canning, box and tin can production, and fish mill operations, all of which provide ample income to some residents and outsiders. Small-scale fishermen, both resident and non-residents of the area have lesser access to fish resources as their fishing technology are no match to the big boats of commercial fishers. Furthermore, they have now to go far out at sea as there are hardly any fishes near the shorelines due to water pollution by industrial wastes. In terms of resource utilization, while large-scale fishers do it for commercial purposes, small-scale fisher folks do it primarily for subsistence, and whatever extra, they sell (See Table 1).

Sustainability of marine resources is challenged by pollution due to dumping of untreated industrial wastes into the sea, and by oil spill from factories. On the other hand, dynamite fishing destroys coral reefs fingerlings. Similarly, the use of fish nets by small-scale fishermen, does not also spare fingerlings, resulting in decreased volume of fishes in the area. Both commercial and small-scale fishers do not heed an existing ordinance on fish ban during the breeding months from October to December.

Table 1

Community Resource Base

Resource

Available

Access

Utilization

Marine Resources

Accessed by both big commercial boats owned mostly by foreigners and their Filipino partners; and by marginal fishermen, both residents and non-residents of the area.

For fish canning to supply local and foreign markets.

For subsistence and small-scale sale of fishes by marginal fishermen.

Community Resource Management Capacity (Marine Resources)

Approximately, a total of 182 hectares of rich agricultural land are devoted to rice-farming in the low-lying barangays of Ayala, Cawit and Talisayan. Upland barangays of La Paz, Pamucutan and Tulungatung have rich agricultural farms that produce rice, vegetables, fruits, poultry, and cock. These farms employ tenant farmers and farm laborers. La Paz and Pamucutan are engaged in large-scale production of vegetables and other high-value crops. Continuous skills and technology development in these modes of agricultural production are provided by the Department of Agriculture. Earnings and income generated from a 50-hectare farm is estimated at Php100, 000 per harvest (See Table2).

The cluster produces sufficient rice supply to the residents of the six barangays. Large areas (in hectares) are devoted to rice farming in the following barangays: Talisayan – 180, Tulungatung – 115, Pamucutan – 100 and Ayala – 40. However, the utilization of the potentials of the agricultural land resource is not maximized as harvest is only twice a year.

Sustainability-wise, majority of the farmers do not use organic fertilizer and insecticides and still rely on chemical-based ones. Moreover, some farmers complain of lack of post-harvest facilities. Others have difficulty in bringing products to the market due to poor road condition, giving chance for middlemen or compradors to buy farm products from farmers at very low price, almost 1/3 of the market price. Kaingin system, which is still being employed in some areas, endangers the soil’s richness while illegal cutting of trees in forest areas to supply the box factory and for charcoal making of Talisayan, has led to soil erosion and subsequent siltation in rivers, endangering the supply of water in irrigation systems (See Table 2).

Table 2

Community Resource Base

Resource

Available

Access

Utilization

Agricultural Resources

(Agricultural lands, irrigation)

Accessed largely by local people.

Employs local people as tenants or farm hands.

Vegetable, fruit, rice, poultry and cock farms for subsistence and commercial purposes.

Community Resource Management Capacity (Agricultural Resources)

Two (2) major rivers – the Dumalon and Sas rivers supply water to the irrigation systems of Cawit, Tulungatung, Ayala, Talisayan, and Pamucutan. These rivers and their tributaries, aside from being source of irrigation water, also provide good quality sand and gravel – a source of a quarrying business thriving in the area by outside investors (See Table 3).

However, unregulated sand and gravel quarrying, coupled with cutting of trees in forests, has resulted in soil erosion and erosion of river banks and subsequent siltation. This condition has resulted in flooding in adjacent barangays prompting fishpond owners, in Cawit particularly, to complain. Aggravating the situation is the dumping of garbage in rivers by some residents. A potential proposed mining exploration can pollute the water. Moreover, a proposed mining exploration in the area poses an additional threat to rivers through chemical pollution.

Table 3

Community Resource Management Capacity (Rivers)

Community Resource Base

Resource

Available

Access

Utilization

Rivers (with good quality sand and gravel)

(Common resource of the six barangays)

Some barangay people and some industries have access to forest resources and wildlife

Sand and gravel accessed by outside investors.

Provide water for farm irrigation and for household, commercial and

industrial use.

Sand and gravel quarrying for business purposes by non-resident investors.

The Ayala watershed consists of 102 hectares, with 277.46 hectares of close canopy area, 217 hectares of plantation forest, 1.93 hectares residual forest, 663 hectares cultivated area, and 11.14 hectares open grass land. There is an existing agreement between the city government and DENR for the protection and conservation of the Ayala watershed that provides potable water to the whole of Zamboanga City.

On the other hand, La Paz watershed is protected and preserved through the presence of the WMSU College of Forestry and Environmental Studies WMSU experimental project which covers 1,277 hectares planted to indigenous trees. But local people access and illegally cut trees, including bacawan trees, basically for building houses and other similar structures, without reforestation. There is also rampant cutting of trees to supply raw materials for the box factory in Talisayan. Noticeably some forest areas are gradually denuded.

The number of wild animals like deer, wild pigs, monkeys, tarsiers and birds is increasingly decreasing due to continuous hunting by local residents and those from neighboring areas like Sibuco, Zamboanga del Norte. There is no barangay ordinance to regulate the activity.

Table 4

Community Resource Management Capacity (Forest, Watershed, Wildlife)

Community Resource Base

Resource

Available

Access

Utilization

Forest trees and wildlife

Occupied by farmers under stewardship program.

Landowners and local populace have access to forest resources.

Residents and non-residents have access to wildlife resources.

Farmers raise vegetables.

Landowners cut down trees for construction.

Wildlife hunted for food by residents and non-residents.

Ayala -La Paz Watershed

Protected area

Source of potable water for commercial, industrial and domestic use.

Although the rich mineral resources in some barangays remain untapped, there is a proposal of a mining company do to mining exploration in Baluno and La Paz covering around 5-7 hectares. Residents strongly oppose the proposal having experienced the effects of mining done by Zambales Mining at La Paz ten years ago. Ayala farmers were also affected because they were not able to plant for almost ten years. There are still remains of poisonous substances in the riverbeds due to the Zambales mining operations more than a decade ago. Today, some residents engage in camote mining (small-scale) for subsistence (See Table 5).

Table 5

Community Resource Management Capacity (Forest)

Community Resource Base

Resource

Available

Access

Utilization

Mineral Resources (e.g. gold, copper, zinc, manganese and ore found in La Paz and Pamucutan)

Access is limited to residents in the area who engage in small-time mining activities or ‘camote-mining’.

To meet subsistence needs.

Social services found in the six barangays, mandated of barangays local government units (BLGU), are day care services, elementary and secondary schools, health center, barangay hall, church or masjid, and cemetery. Health services are available 24/7 although some medical facilities are lacking. Basic education is well-provided in the six barangays, with only two barangay high schools serving the whole cluster. The main problem of these schools is inadequate school facilities. Various organizations present in the barangays which offer microfinance facilities are KFI, TAYTAY, Ayudahan and ASA. Land Bank itself gives up to Php300, 000-loan to farmer coops. Loans are availed of in order to finance family enterprise or to subsidize rice farming inputs. However, due to poverty, loan proceeds are sometimes used to buy basic necessities. But the sadder thing is that others spend on vices (See Table 6).

Table 6

Community Resource Management Capacity (Basic Social Services)

Community Basic Resource

Resource

Available

Access

Utilization

Health

Generally accessible to residents thru barangay health centers, lying-in clinic in Ayala and wellness center in La Paz, which operate 24/7.

However, not very accessible to residents of La Paz and Pamucutan due to distance and lack of transporation.

High utilization.

Education

Pres-school and elementary education are available in all six barangays.

Secondary education available only in Ayala and Talisayan.

In La Paz, households are dispersed making it difficult for children to attend school due to distance.

School children avail of educational facilities.

Credit facilities

Several microfinance facilities operating in the area (KFI, MEMPCO, TAYTAY, Ayudahan and ASA)

Land Bank gives up to Php300, 000-loan to farmer coops.

For family enterprise or to subsidize rice farming inputs; some spend proceeds to buy basic necessities; others, on vices.

As mandated, all the six barangays have their respective elected Barangay Councils. Government line agencies as well as instrumentalities of the city government do their part in addressing the basic services needs of the populace. Community-based organizations are also operating in the area such as women’s organizations, farmers’ associations, and youth associations, sustainability of which are challenged by the fact that these are mostly leader-driven. The local catholic church exerts a degree of influence in the affairs of these communities. A number of non-government organizations also implement projects in these which offer free medical services and housing projects, to name a few. Local and national line agencies of the government also provide services to the barangays. Likewise, the Zamboanga City Water District and the Zamboanga City Electric Cooperative also extend their services (See Table 7).

Table 7

Community Resource Management Capacity (Operational Management And

Governance)

Resources

Available

Access

Utilization

Sustainability

Office of the Barangay Council per barangay

Line agencies:

DepEd, DOLE, PNRC, PCSO, DAR, DSWD, CSWDO, PNP, FD, CAO, CEO, others.

Most accessible structural resource to all constituents

Utilized by people for settlement of disputes; emergency assistance; issuance of certificates; and making impartial decisions on barangay affairs.

Barangay officials readily available.

There is a need to strengthen their capacity to manage and regulate utilization of community resources thru ordinances and resolutions.

NGOs/Pos

People in communities have access to membership in POs.

People have access to services offered by NGOs in the area like Gawad Kalinga, Glee Club, Kasanyangan Foundation, Inc. (KFI), Tzu Chi Foundation and USAID Equals.

Community people take advantage of the services and technical assistance offered by NGOs and POs like housing projects and loan grants.

Usually, these organizations are leader-driven.

Not fully functional as leaders are lacking in capacities.

Organizations need continuous capacity building.

Only few members sustain their membership.

The six barangays covered by the study have some if not all of the basic community infrastructures. The barangays have their respective Barangay Halls or Barangay Offices. Multi-purpose covered courts are also available in these barangays which were constructed inside school campuses and others in donated lands. Barangay Ayala specifically has a mini-gymnasium where public events and activities are oftentimes held. Other community infrastructures available in these barangays are the buildings which house the health centers, day care centers and the schools.

Discussion

The study revealed the existence a vast and rich community resource base in the clustered barangays, particularly, natural resources. But the people remain generally poor. Some benefit from industries through employment, but this is seasonal. Results of the study also indicated that the communities have lesser access to some resources than outsiders; and that they are not able to manage their natural resources effectively, leaving outside investors to bring havoc to these resources through pollution and over-utilization. Barangay local government units admit they have to formulate more ordinances to protect the resources, while, existing ordinances are hardly implemented. Meanwhile, the rape of the environment flourishes. Clearly, the damage wrought by industries outweighs the benefits from their ventures, especially on the long-term.

Although local people have high access to agricultural lands, farmers are beset with lack of farm facilities and needed infrastructure. Infrastructure is known to be the economy’s backbone. Power and water supply, transportation and communication systems are all important elements in people’s quest to improve their quality of life. Overcoming poverty means individual and collective empowerment, strengthening productive and income generating capacities and increasing opportunities. This requires a clear understanding of the activities of poor people and of the natural, social, economic and political environment in which they live. It also requires supportive policies, institutions, services and investment (IFAD, 2006).

The study also revealed that the barangay LGUs have very good resource management plans. However, these remain unimplemented. Given the vastness of the cluster’s resources, and considering the extent of the adverse effects of inappropriate resource utilization both by residents and non-residents of the barangays, local officials certainly cannot do it alone. This political exercise necessitates the involvement of prime stakeholders – the people, even at the planning stage. It also necessitates concerted effort among the six barangays who are intertwined by the ecosystem.

Community based resource management is not only about communities taking on the mechanical management responsibilities. It also requires involving communities in all stages of making decisions about the nature and direction of development and conservation (Mekong Wetlands Biodiversity Conservation and Sustainable Use Programme, 2004).

However, the study indicated that majority of local folks remain passive about their role in managing community resources. To them, this is the sole responsibility of government officials. Thus, there is a need for a two-way paradigm shift: (a) for local officials to encourage people participation even at the planning stage of development initiatives, based on local officials’ mandate (1991 Local Government Code); and (b) for local people to understand and appreciate their vital role in purposively planning and managing their resources for maximum access and sustainability.

Cognizant of these imperatives, the participants of the study proceeded with the formulation of the Three-Year Development Plan and the One-Year Investment Plan. The planning activity was an exercise in community-based resource planning that involved the representatives of the various sectors of the community together with local officials who participated in the study, as inspired by ECSOM and as recommended by the study team.

The cluster members likewise institutionalized their plans by forming the cluster organization called the Alyansa de Costa Oeste Para Progreso Y Prosperidad, and created committees to pursue the identified priority projects. The biggest challenge now that confronts the clustered communities is how to sustain the momentum and achieve their goals.

How Environmentally Friendly Recycling Is Environmental Sciences Essay

Recycling has always been seen as being Green. The average person does not realize there is a cost to recycling. Determine the cost (economics, environmental, and social) to recycling various materials, plastics, metals, paper, glass, etc.

THESIS:

Recycling does not only have economic casts but similarly important environmental and social costs. Each product should be reused as many times as possible while reduction in consumption would take place. It is necessary to get rid of our habit of using disposable products. Instead, the society should aim for lower waste production.

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

The purpose of this research paper is to discuss how environmentally friendly recycling really is and the social, environmental and economic costs involved during the process of recycling. By thoroughly studying academic papers available to the public, articles, books, and gone through studies on the internet all listed in the bibliography, the recycling process is discussed in detail throughout the essay to reach a conclusion which supports the thesis: “Recycling has economic, environmental, and social costs. The practice should be re-using as many items as possible and reducing consumption. We have to stop the habit of using disposable products; our aim should rather be reducing the amount of waste created.”

In the report a brief description and the importance of recycling is made. Recycling is the process of treating waste material that is generally considered as trashed so it can be used again. Once recycled, trash can be used as new products that can be resold and/or reused.

Later on, the discussion is carried about environmental benefits of recycling. Pollution is reduced with recycling, natural resources can be conserved and deforestation can be prevented.

Among the most common materials being recycled are: aggregates, concrete, batteries, biodegradable waste, electronics, ferrous metals, non-ferrous metals, glass, paper, plastic, tires and oil. A detailed explanation is provided on the recyclable material. The list can definitely be expanded.

It is obvious recycling costs money therefore in the final section of the paper the expenses of recycling are explored. The costs are: economic, environmental and social.

To conclude the study it can be stated that; although recycling involves many environmental benefits, people as a whole have to help to save nature, our planet and its resources. We have to remember to concentrate on reducing our consumption rather than focusing mostly on recycling. In other words, to reduce the amount of waste that needs to be recycled it should be encouraged to reuse materials that can be reused rather than throwing them away. This way the pollution produced by recycling can also be reduced.

INTRODUCTION

According to the Longman Advanced American Dictionary recycling is ” the process of treating things so that they can be used again”. Because in the definition waste material usually considered as trash is referred to as “things”; recycling is the action of collecting materials that are thrown away as trash to process the used materials and turn them into new products which can in return be resold and/or reused.

From the beginning of history of mankind, we have been producing waste and polluting the planet by dumping the trash into nature. When industrialization started developing the waste turned into toxic waste which created massive pollution, harming the planet even more.

When thinking of recycling the majority of people think of house hold waste which is a result of daily consumption of industrial products such as plastic and glass bottles, aluminum cans, paper, etc. Industrial waste is forgotten. The manufacturing of industrial products also creates huge quantities of waste that pollutes the environment. So when regarding recycling we must consider the benefits and costs of recycling at the production level.

Obviously both production and consumption of recycling brings us many benefits concerning the environment. It is not only important for environmental issues like helping to reduce polution but we also must keep in mind the importance of efficient use of natural resources and energy which is quickly becoming scarce.

BENEFITS OF RECYCLING

Pollution reduction

Waste management can significantly reduce the pollution by applying the motto reduce, reuse and recycle. However, it is also up to people to change their mentally of no reusing and recycling

By redaction of needs for new material that can be subsidized from recycled or reused material less of direct manufacturing is needed. Moreover, if people would consume less we would help reduce pollution that occurs as a result of manufacturing of new products. All of the manufacturing processes use energy that creates pollution either from machining or. There is additional risk of creating more pollution in many of fabrication processes where hazardous materials are used as well.

The continuous daily habit of creating and buying more of one time use products instead of recycling or reusing creates more waste and more pollution. Any kind of trash dumped on the landfills contains poisonous gasses that get in the air, water and soul resources

Conservation of resources

It is well known fact, that mankind is developing at rapid rate and part of it is using more natural resources. However, many of these resources are non-renewable like coal, natural or gas which are not found in big quantities in long run term. They are not able to recreate or renew in short amount of time as we would need them to do so but instead it takes thousands of year. A way of conserving natural recourses must be found to achieve sustainable development and so granted a good life for future generations. Formation of new products needs a lot of energy in terms of heat, electric power or fuel for transportation. Recycling process can avoid using these natural resources in some extend.

In case when natural resources are being used as the base materials for production of new products, by using the already recycled or reused material we lower the consumption of the natural resource. Even when small portion of products are recycled it can save a lot of natural resources and cost connected to their manufacturing. For example, in the USA more than 70% of iron is being recycled what turns to save more than 50 million metric tons iron ore in one year.

Conservation of energy

The use of energy works on the same principles like conservation of resources. Less energy is needed when less manufacturing is needed. Moreover, in some cases like aluminum up to 95% of eclectic power can be saved in production process when it is recycled. Of course, some recycling processes would use much more energy than the actual production of product but because of that this kind of recycling is not being used on big scale. The example can be different kinds of electrical batteries. To separate each kind and adjust the recycling process accordingly would be very energy inefficient and therefore it is not happening.

Recyclable products

There are many products that can be recycled these days and many are but because of the complexity of the waste it is not an easy task. Below are some examples of products that are recycled relatively easy.

Paper

Paper us number one material that is thrown away as trash. Approximately 33 per cent of garbage is paper. On the other hand, it is the one of the most recycled product from non industrial production since it is relatively easy to turn waste paper in to a new paper product. Paper waste that is going to be recycled is called scrap paper similar like scrap metal and it does not matter what kind of paper it is. Almost any kind and color of paper can be recycled. Papers that have wax, paste, or papers that are coated with plastic or aluminum foil are usually not recycled because the process is too expensive. Moreover, it is important to keep in mind that for formation and whitening of the paper in recycling process dangerous chemicals to the environment are being used.

Plastic

Society uses plastic more often from day to day. It is made out of oil with different materials added to created soft or hard plastic with different properties. The big problem rise when it comes to recycling it since not all kinds of plastic are recyclable. Only very few are and even if it can be recycled it cannot be recycled into the original characteristics. Generally, lower forms and qualities of plastic are being created when being recycled.

Glass

Glass is used to package many foods like juices, baby food but mainly in windows glass production because of its strength and see thru property. Because of it various use in everyday file like plastic it makes up about six percent of trash by weight, two percent by volume. It is relatively easy to recycle glass since Recycling old glass uses 40% less energy than manufacturing it from new. The problem rises up from different kind of glass products which have different glass properties. Each kind has its own recycling procedure and therefore only small amounts of it are turned into new products. The glass is in most cases not recycled but reused for example like bottles what is even more economical and environmental friendly.

Ferrous material

Steel is the most recycled metal. We recycle huge amounts of steel from cars, appliances, old buildings, and bridges. Today, all steel products are made with some recycled steel. It is mainly because it takes about 60 percent less energy to make steel from recycled materials than it does from iron ore. That’s why today’s steel makers always use some steel scrap to make new steel products.

Non-ferrous material

Among the nonferrous metals, aluminum is the most widely recycled material. It requires huge amounts of electric power in its production and purification. Approximately, recycling aluminum can save 95% of the energy needed to make aluminum from bauxite ore

Electronics

Electronics is used every day of our life and no one can imagine life without. This case creates big problems when it comes to the end of the life time of the products. According to the greenpeace organization approximately 20 to 50 million tons of electronics waste or e waste is created every year. Each product is complex and contains many different elements. Before any recycling process starts, all products must be disassembled and materials must be separated. Some of them are lead, cadmium, or other toxic material. These materials are harmful to the environment but can be easily recycled and reused in many new products. The materials that can’t be recycle ends up in landfills but in much smaller quantities than the product was originally made out of.

Batteries

Batteries in waste management represent a lot of problems since they contain mercury and cadmium that can be potentially dangerous to the environment. Moreover, there is too many kinds of batteries on market therefore it is hard to recycle them. Only the auto lead-acid based batteries are recycled while the process is simple and environmental friendly.

Aggregates and concrete

Used aggregates or concrete can be easily reused or recycled in production of new concrete by replacing used rocks. Special crushed machine is being used to transform bigger concrete blocks into smaller sized parts. Thus recycling or better said reusing process does not require damaging of the nature by digging up new rock and deforestation.

Oil

Oil can be simply reused after cleaning in a variety of ways. Most is processed for use in asphalt plants, industrial and utility boilers, steel mills and other facilities. Some is re-refined for use as a new generation of motor oil or as fuel oils. The rest is used in specially designed space heaters in automotive bays and municipal garages. The oil helps these types of facilities reduce their heating costs. This practice, however, is not recommended for home use.

Biodegradable waste

Biodegradable waste or also called organic waste consist waste from kitchen, garden and organic green waste. This kind of waste has high nutrition form and can be easily composted in to fertile topsoil. The process does not have to be done by collection programs on large scale but simply at household level on small scale.

DETERMINE THE COST OF RECYCLING:

Economical costs

There are many direct and indirect costs involved in recycling waste management. The direct costs are collaborated in collection, separation and the recycling process itself. These economical costs are high since whole recycling infrastructure must be build for the recycling process to work. On the other hand indirect costs are often not considered. Without recycling we would produce more waste what would need more landfills since they are limited on space and the amount of trash they can hold. Moreover, it is very expensive to run them since there require a lot of regulations regarding the maintenance and operation, In a long run turn the cost of landfills will be only higher since more of the usable land will be taken away.

From future perspective, it might be economical more feasible to recycle when there will be a shortage of natural resources. The resources would be more expensive and therefore the cost of recycling might be lower than the costs of new manufacturing production. Also new more efficient technologies must be considered in future developments.

Environmental costs

There is a big discussion if recycling of some products is even environmentally beneficial. The recycling process requires a lot of energy since the waste products must be collected; pollution is created from transpiration and separation. Moreover, the recycling process, turning old material into new, uses a lot of energy as well.

Some people recycle paper since they want to overcome deforestation but in fact trees are renewable source of energy. In fact, many other materials In fact, of the materials we recycle like paper, glass, steel, and plastic are in no danger of running out in the foreseeable future. Glass is made out of sand which it the most abundant element on the earth. Similarly, aluminum and steel that is made out of iron ore contributes by 13% to the Earth’s crust.

In contrast to this argument, if at least the same amount of energy is needed to recycle than to produce new items it is illogical no to recycle. Electrical energy contributes to pollutions unless it comes from renewable energy like sun wind or water. Therefore, if we need more energy to produce new product than to recycle even if the process is expensive it is the correct environmental way to preside.

Social Costs

Recycling is mainly popular in developed countries where people separate plastic, cans, plastic and sometimes biodegradable waste. It is done in believe of reduction of the use of raw material and pollution. Moreover, lower amounts of garbage go to landfills this way where they could danger air, water and soil resources by releasing dangerous elements.

Those were the positive believes of recycling what people have. However, more often people start to ask question if recycling is beneficial form the economical point of view, is it worth to save energy over new material production. Also why some different kinds of materials are recyclable at other parts of the world? It is impossible for people to recycle products them self and because of that they depend on the recycling process that is provided in their area. This way sometimes the costs might add up to be higher than to produce new product from raw material.

In some sense, recycling is smart and creative way for human to deal with produced trash. The social question involved in recycling is: whether the cost of energy used in collecting and transporting the recyclables is less than the cost of energy used in the production of new materials where as the jobs provided by the recycling industry compensate the job losses due to the decrease in the production of new materials.

CONCLUSION

Throughout this report benefits and costs connected to recycling of different materials had been addressed. Recycling had been defined as a reprocessing of old material into new one while smaller amounts of raw material and energy are being consumed. Energy and pollution saved from recycling can help humanity in development of sustainable environment for future generations. One has to relieve that we start to use too much of natural resources and obese nature.

Furthermore, as a population is dramatically growing, the dependence on new technologies and the change of the mentality about recycling will have to change. Otherwise, there will be increase in green house gases, contamination of seas and underground water and increase in air pollution. Many techniques of human life will have to change but recycling will be playing part major roll to avoid above mentioned problems. For this purpose, large campaign and public programs already exist to inform the people about the ways how to save nature. Recycling is only part of these programs since a lot of importance goes to reusing and reducing of material as a preventing process of any waste creation from the start.

Reusing

Reusing is a process in which product lifetime is being expended, ideally to the maximum. It can be done by:

Who Has Seen The Wind English Literature Essay

Who has seen the wind resembles Huckleberry Finn by Mark Twain or Lord of the flies by William Golding. Just like the aforementioned texts, the book is a children’s book whose audience is adults. In this novel, W.O Mitchell traces a characters quest for knowledge, illustrating his development from the age of four to the teenage. This character is a small town boy who wants to understand the chaos that underlies human experience. The title of the book (Who has seen the Wind) is metaphoric because it implies that the characters quest for knowledge is moved by an indirect force. In the story titled who has seen the wind, W.O Mitchell tries to explain the meaning of life to his young audience. The protagonist in the book is a young boy who at a tender age develops a comprehension of death and birth through observation of animals. The birth of forbsies pigeons helps him to understand the concept of birth. The death of a pigeon, a dog and his own father helps him to understand to understand death, birth and the real meaning of life. His first encounter with life is when he and his friend called Forbsie discover some baby pigeons that had hatched. Brian could not easily grasp this fact, so he asks his father for help. Unfortunately, his father is unwilling to provide information on this matter and this leads to a brief discussion devoid of details. After the discussion with the father, Brian makes a conclusion. He concludes that the male pigeon places the baby pigeon in the egg and the baby grows while the mother is laying the eggs. When the baby pigeon grows, it hatches out of that egg. This explanation leaves Brian confused about the nature’s way of reproduction. At this stage, the protagonist is very naive because he thinks that human beings and animals reproduce in the same manner. The protagonist encounter with life comes when he and his friend Forbsie watch the birth of some rabbits. This time round, his knowledge of birth develops further though at first, he is not very sure about the new born rabbits because of their funny and weird looks. They do not have hair while their legs are not visible. The two boys speculate that the rabbits will grow up and also have babies and the cycle will continue, creating an infinite number of rabbits. Brian goes back to the father to seek explanations on what they had just observed while the rabbits were giving birth. When the protagonist asks his father how the rabbits are started, he gives an inconclusive answer that likens rabbits to plants. The father tells him that rabbits are started by a planted seed and they are different from pigeons. This explanation changes Brian’s philosophy on birth as his mind grows and his naivety ebbs away. After the discussion with the father, Brain makes a conclusion that rabbits come from a seed planted inside the mothers unlike pigeons. A baby rabbit develops inside the womb of the mother until its ready to come out while a baby pigeon develops inside an egg until it is ready for hatching. This makes his knowledge of birth more vivid and we can conclude that at this stage, the main character understands more about how animals are born. Apart from understanding the concept of birth through animals giving birth, Brian also understands the concept of death. The protagonist endures very many experiences that help him to understand what death is and why it occurs. After the baby pigeons are born the main character, takes one baby pigeon to his home amid pouring rain. The young pigeon cannot withstand that harsh weather and by the time he gets home with that pigeon, the pigeon is dead. At this point in this story, Brian does not understand death, but his father tells him that death is a means which a living thing comes to an end. this experience teaches the protagonist that one must dig a hole in which the dead animal should be buried. He does not even know why dead animals are buried. However, he gets more information about death when his won dog dies. Brian expects the dog to behave the way it has been behaving, like wagging its tail but all he can see is a lifeless body of his dog. He cries because he wants his dog back but no amount of tears can bring the dog back to life. This experience really shatters Brian and he feels a lot of pain and emptiness inside is wrecked soul. His encounter with death goes beyond animals because at one point, his father gets seriously ill then dies. This one deals a severe blow to the protagonists and he cannot easily accept the death of his father. He is not sure about how the society expects him to behave after the death of his father . Fathers mean the world to most children and the thought of losing one is enough to make a boy grieve but

He did not cry Brian does not cry immediately like other kids. He does not even understand why he does not cry after the death of his father but when the reality strike hard, he grieves very much. He really cries bearing in mind that his father was his mentor and he always turned to him for help when things became complicated. His father had been instrumental in his process of growth, explaining to him various concepts regarding life and death. Now he knows that his dad is gone forever and his death gives Brian the greatest life lesson, that is one has to accept the truth and let go of fears. It is important to note that the protagonist develops and understanding of life birth and death as every experience in the story makes him more mature. Though at the end of the novel, he has not fully grasped the concept of life and death, it is evident that he has learnt a lot of things to do with birth, death and life and this has made him a better and mature person. His understanding of birth is a baby getting born after the father plants a seed in the mother while death is a process where a living thing physically goes forever. Throughout this novel, Mitchell has portrayed Brian developing in different phases. He is a growing and maturing young man who begins a search that is meant to discover the real meaning of life.