BUSN112: Managing Markets

ASSESSMENT GUIDE
BUSN112: Managing Markets, Semester 2 2020
Assessment 3
Individual Market Analysis Business Report
Weighting [40%] Why this assessment?
This assessment provides you with the opportunity to appraise a data set using learnt descriptive statistical skills in order to demonstrate basic applied understanding of such skills in a marketing context. This assessment will also enable you to demonstrate the ability to interpret numeric data, and derive market or consumer meaning from it.
What are the types of employability skills that I will acquire upon completion of this assessment?
Skill Type
Developed critical and analytical thinking ? Developed ability to solve complex problems ?
Developed confidence to learn independently ? Developed written communication skills ? Developed knowledge in the field of marketing ? Developed work-related knowledge and skills ?
Developed effective research skills ?
Assessment Overview:
Due date: 10 November 2020, 8am
The submission system/Turnitin opens on 3 Nov, 8am. Please access the Turnitin box through a LEO site named -EXAM-BUSN112-National-Semester 2, 2020- on the left side of your LEO page and click on the main exam tile.
Main exam tile will be accessible from 19 Oct.
Weighting: 40%
Length and/or format: 2250-word report
Learning outcomes assessed LO3, LO4
Graduate attributes assessed GA5, GA8, GA9
How to submit: Turnitin created by the Examination Office (Access through a LEO site named -EXAM-BUSN112-NationalSemester 2, 2020 – on the left side of your LEO page and click on the main exam tile).
Main exam tile will be accessible from 19 Oct.
Return of assignment: Not returned
Assessment criteria: See the last page of this document
Context
In assessment 1, you were asked to introduce us to your gym and outline the legal and economic dimensions that were relevant. Then in assessment 2 you explored the key marketing considerations in the form of a persuasive presentation. Now, in your final piece, you will use collected data to justify your marketing strategy and present this in a formal business report.
Instructions
Prior to your assignment being drafted, you will be asked to participate in a class-wide anonymous survey, identifying your opinions about gyms. The results of this survey will be provided to you as a data set, which you can use for a statistical analysis to justify and support your marketing strategy identified in assessment 2.
In your report you will discuss the key identifiers from the dataset provided on LEO that you have chosen to support your marketing strategy. These should be supported by data and your knowledge of statistics. Identifiers may include gender, income, gym opinions, etc.
Consider the following questions:
1. What does the data tell you about the planned locality of your gym?
2. How does this support your strategy?
You may like to draw on additional sources to support these ideas. Be sure to indicate appropriate theories and their applications.
You should create tables and graphs to support your points, but these must be labelled and referenced clearly. Though you may find existing graphs and tables about your market, consider these as inspirational only and create your own using the data set you have been given.
Report writing is formal and intended for professional audiences. You will need to adapt the language you use to suit the audience.
Structure
Title Page Not included in word count
Executive Summary
(approximately 200 words) Not included in word count
Table of Contents Not included in word count
Introduction
(approximately 200 words) Clearly identify which key identifiers you have analysed in your report
Remind us of the key details about your gym
Main body (use subheadings here)
(approximately 1850 words) Discuss the key identifiers
Use headings for each section and sub section
Conclusion
(approximately 200 words)
References For students in the Peter Faber Business School, you are required to use the Harvard style of referencing. If you are in a different School, you are welcome to use the referencing style you have been taught; however, you must indicate this at the top of your reference list.
Appendices Not included in word count
Only use this if you need to provide additional information for reference
How do I submit?
• Electronic submission using LEO through Turnitin (Please access the Turnitin box through a LEO site named -EXAM-BUSN112-National-Semester 2, 2020” on the left side of your LEO page and click on the main exam tile.)
• Please include your student ID number and your name in the assignment file name.
• Submit one soft copy via LEO (link on unit site under Assessment). Please ensure you save a copy of your document before submitting it.
• Include the checklist below in your assessment document
• You must keep a backup copy of every assignment you submit, until the marked assignment has been returned to you. In the unlikely event that one of your assignments is misplaced, you will need to submit your backup copy.
• Any work you submit may be checked by electronic or other means for the purposes of detecting collusion and/or plagiarism.
Checklist for students to submit along with their assignment
My submitted assignment assessment is within the specified word limit (+/-10%) ?
I have included references using the specified referencing style ?
I have correctly cited all my sources and references ?
I have formatted my assessment as per the specifications ?
I have checked my Turnitin assessment to ensure the similarity report is acceptable and explainable ?
I will be able to supply the process output, if required by my lecturer to prove this is my own work (e.g. screen dump of my search and retrieval of journal articles, etc.) ?
I have completed proof reading and checked for spelling and grammar ?
I have submitted my work before the due date/time ?
Some Helpful Websites and Resources
• How to use Excel’s Descriptive Statistics Tool
• How to run a t test two sample assuming unequal variances in Excel
• Mean, Median and Mode
• Measures of spread: range, variance & standard deviation
• Primary and Secondary Data
• Representing Data
• Skewness
• Standard Deviation – Explained and Visualized
• Types of Data
Other Resources on all of these topics can be found in the PowerPoint slides, textbook and workshop videos
Who can help me?
Academic skills Unit (ASU)
Studiosity
Post a question to the LEO discussion forum
Seek a consultation with one of the following lecturers:
• Dr. Andrew Papadimos (NLIC) – contact via LEO
• Laura Papadimos – contact via LEO
I’m having problems
SC: Application for Special Consideration Complete this form if you wish to be exempted from academic penalty because your study has been affected by unforeseen circumstances.
EX: Application for extension of time for submission of an Assessment Task Complete this form if you wish to apply for extension of time for submission of this Assessment Task.
Complete this form if you wish to apply for extension of time for submission of this Assessment Task.
Referencing
All referencing should be in ACU Harvard style; however if you are coming from another faculty, you may choose to use your usual referencing style. If this is the case you must indicate at the top of your reference list what referencing style you are using (e.g. APA, MLA, Chicago, etc).
Please ensure your assignment makes use of in-text citations and a reference list. Missing citations or references is equivalent to plagiarism.
Criteria
The full criteria are compiled in a rubric, which can be found on the following page/s.
Rubric for Assessment 3: Market Analysis Business Report – 40% Weighting
Learning Outcomes Criteria Standards
Below Expectations Meets expectations Exceeds Expectations
NN (0-49) PA (50-64) CR (65-74) DI (75-84) HD (85-100)
GA5
LO3
Weight: 20 marks
TL=4
Learning Stage I Different statistical techniques
understood and used to interpret the data for decision making No descriptive analysis is presented. No graphs to demonstrate descriptive
analysis are presented. No
required primary analysis is provided nor clearly demonstrated in tables. No statistical methods to test the hypothesis are correctly identified and used. Results are neither clearly labelled nor clearly presented in tables. No results of the primary analysis are correctly interpreted. No results of hypotheses testing are correctly interpreted. Based on the interpretation of results, no recommendations for the company are presented.
(0 to 9.9 marks)
Some descriptive analysis is presented. Some graphs to demonstrate descriptive analysis are presented. Some primary analysis is provided and clearly demonstrated in tables. Some statistical methods to test the hypothesis are correctly identified and used. Results are adequately labelled and clearly presented in tables. Some results of the primary analysis are correctly interpreted. Some results of hypotheses testing are correctly interpreted. Based on the interpretation of results, adequate recommendations for the company are presented.
(10 to 12.7 marks)
Credible descriptive analysis is presented. Some graphs to demonstrate descriptive analysis are presented. Credible primary analysis is provided and clearly demonstrated in tables. Some statistical methods to test the hypothesis are correctly identified and used. Results are credibly labelled and clearly presented in tables. Some results of the primary analysis are correctly interpreted. Some results of hypotheses testing are correctly interpreted. Based on the interpretation of results, credible recommendations for the company are presented.
(12.8 to 14.7 marks)
Distinctive descriptive analysis is presented. More than a few graphs to demonstrate descriptive analysis are presented. Distinctive primary analysis is provided and clearly demonstrated in tables. Several statistical methods to test the hypothesis are correctly identified and used. Results are distinctively labelled and clearly presented in tables. Most results of the primary analysis are correctly interpreted. Most results of hypotheses testing are correctly interpreted. Based on the interpretation of results, distinctive recommendations for the company are presented.
(14.8 to 16.8 marks)
Highly distinctive analysis is presented. All graphs to demonstrate descriptive analysis are presented. All required primary analysis is provided and clearly demonstrated in tables. All statistical methods to test the hypothesis are correctly identified and used. All results are clearly labelled and clearly presented in tables. All of the results of the primary analysis are correctly interpreted. All of the results of hypotheses testing are correctly interpreted. Based on the interpretation of results, highly distinctive recommendations for the company are presented.
(16.9 to 20 marks)
GA8
LO3
Weight: 4 marks TL=4
Learning Stage I and D Locating, organising , analysing and
synthesising relevant statistical
information and
data into business report Failure to locate, organise, analyse and synthesise relevant statistical
information and data into
business report .
(0 to 1.9 marks) Adequately located, organised, analysed and synthesised relevant statistical information and data into business report .
(2 to 2.5 marks) Credibly located, organised, analysed and synthesised relevant statistical information and data into business report .
(2.6 to 2.9 marks) Distinctively located, organised, analysed and synthesised relevant statistical information and data into business report .
(3 to 3.3 marks) Highly distinctively located, organised, analysed and synthesised relevant statistical information and data into business report .
(3.4 to 4 marks)
6
GA9
LO4
Weight: 16 marks
TL=3
Learning Stage I and D Communication
skills
(style, tone, technical writing
skills, referencing)
(6 marks)
Information presented is incoherent or in a style inappropriate to the task. Significant errors in grammar, punctuation and spelling.
Most or all sources have not been references using in-text citations and a reference list, or there are significant style issues.
(0 to 2.9 marks) Information presented is generally coherent and, in a style, appropriate to the task.
Grammar, punctuation and
spelling is generally correct, with some errors.
All sources are referenced using in-text citations and a reference list with some general errors in style.
(3.0 to 3.8 marks) Information presented in a coherent manner and in a style that is engaging and appropriate to the task. Little error in grammar, punctuation and spelling. All sources are referenced using in-text citations and a reference list with some errors in style.
(3.9 to 4.4 marks)
Information presented in a highly coherent manner and in a style that is engaging and appropriate to the task. There may be minor errors in grammar, punctuation and spelling.
All sources are referenced using in-text citations and a reference list with some minor errors in style.
(4.5 to 5 marks Information presented in a clear and extremely coherent manner, and in a style that is
engaging and highly appropriate to the task. No errors in grammar, punctuation and spelling. All sources are referenced using in-text citations and a reference list with no, or very minor errors in style.
(5.1 to 6 marks)
Notes: GA – Graduate Attribute; LO – Learning Outcome; TL – Taxonomy Level (or level of complexity) (see Bloom’s Taxonomy); Learning Stage – Introduced (I), Developed (D), Assured (A)

BLAW1002 SEMESTER 2 2020 – ASSESSMENT 3: LEGAL CASE STUDY

BLAW1002 SEMESTER 2 2020 – ASSESSMENT 3: LEGAL CASE STUDY – SHORT QUESTION AND ANSWER (40 MARKS)
For this assessment, students are to apply the concepts taught in the law modules for the unit (modules 9, 10 and 11) to a case study (Commonwealth Bank of Australia: The Unwitting Mule) and answer four short answer questions. To best answer these questions, students may be required to research beyond the principles taught in the lectures and tutorials, and will be required to reference any external material that is used to form the substance of their answers.
In breaking down the marks that are available for this assessment, each question is worth 9 marks for a total of 36 marks for the content portion of the assignment. The remaining 4 marks are awarded for the use of referencing and the structure / presentation of assignment submissions. Students are to integrate a completed cover page (a template is provided on blackboard) into their assignment document and submit their assignment file in soft copy format to a turnitin link in blackboard. A hard copy version of your assignment is not required to be submitted to your lecturer or tutor.
Assessment Questions
Read the Commonwealth Bank of Australia: The Unwitting Mule case study and answer the following questions:
1. What areas of law are pertinent to this case study? Describe what the identified areas of law cover, and explain how they are relevant to the issues raised in the case study. (9 marks)
2. What is the business structure of the Commonwealth Bank of Australia (CBA)? What does this structure say of the duties that the bank’s directors owe to its stakeholders, and how have the directors breached those duties by allowing the conduct that is detailed in the case study. (9 marks)
3. Describe the regulatory responsibility of AUSTRAC in the context of this case. What changes (if any) to the scope of their responsibility were brought about by the findings of the 2018 Royal Commission into the Banking sector. (9 marks)
4. What business risks were ignored by the CBA executives, and what good governance and compliance practices could have been implemented to alleviate these risks? (9 marks)
Below is the marking rubric which will be used to grade your submission:
Question 1 – Relevant areas of law 0 – 2 marks
Very limited knowledge of topic with significant gaps between what was covered and what answer should have addressed.
Answer shows no conceptual understanding, or ability to apply those concepts in answering the question. 2 – 4 marks
Limited knowledge of topic and will not have discussed relevant points in much detail.
Answer shows a general lack of conceptual understanding, or ability to apply those concepts in answering the question.
4 – 5 marks
Reasonable knowledge of topic but may not have discussed all relevant points in answer, or what was discussed often lacks detail.
Demonstrates a
reasonable conceptual understanding and a sound ability to apply those concepts in answering the question. 5 – 7 marks
Good knowledge of topic but may not have discussed all relevant points in answer, or will have discussed all relevant points but will occasionally lack detail.
Mostly demonstrates a high level conceptual understanding and a very good ability to apply those concepts in answering the question. 7 – 9 marks
Comprehensive/detailed knowledge of topic with discussion of all relevant points in answer. Consistently
demonstrates an excellent conceptual understanding and an outstanding ability to apply those concepts in answering the question.
/
9
Question 2 –
Business
Structure of
bank 0 – 2 marks
Very limited knowledge of topic with significant gaps between what was covered and what answer should have addressed.
Answer shows no conceptual understanding, or ability to apply 2 – 4 marks
Limited knowledge of topic and will not have discussed relevant points in much detail.
Answer shows a general lack of conceptual understanding, or ability to apply those concepts in 4 – 5 marks
Reasonable knowledge of topic but may not have discussed all relevant points in answer, or what was discussed often lacks detail.
Demonstrates a
reasonable conceptual understanding and a sound ability to apply 5 – 7 marks
Good knowledge of topic but may not have discussed all relevant points in answer, or will have discussed all relevant points but will occasionally lack detail.
Mostly demonstrates a high level conceptual understanding and a very good ability to apply those concepts in answering the question. 7 – 9 marks
Comprehensive/detailed knowledge of topic with discussion of all relevant points in answer. Consistently
demonstrates an excellent conceptual understanding and an outstanding ability to apply those concepts in answering the question.
/
9
those concepts in answering the question. answering the question.
those concepts in answering the question.
Question 3 –
Regulatory responsibility of
AUSTRAC 0 – 2 marks
Very limited knowledge of topic with significant gaps between what was covered and what answer should have addressed.
Answer shows no conceptual understanding, or ability to apply those concepts in answering the question. 2 – 4 marks
Limited knowledge of topic and will not have discussed relevant points in much detail.
Answer shows a general lack of conceptual understanding, or ability to apply those concepts in answering the question.
4 – 5 marks
Reasonable knowledge of topic but may not have discussed all relevant points in answer, or what was discussed often lacks detail.
Demonstrates a
reasonable conceptual understanding and a sound ability to apply those concepts in answering the question. 5 – 7 marks
Good knowledge of topic but may not have discussed all relevant points in answer, or will have discussed all relevant points but will occasionally lack detail.
Mostly demonstrates a high level conceptual understanding and a very good ability to apply those concepts in answering the question. 7 – 9 marks
Comprehensive/detailed knowledge of topic with discussion of all relevant points in answer. Consistently
demonstrates an excellent conceptual understanding and an outstanding ability to apply those concepts in answering the question.
/
9
Question 4 – Business risks,
Good Governance and Compliance 0 – 2 marks
Very limited knowledge of topic with significant gaps between what was covered and what answer should have addressed.
Answer shows no conceptual understanding, or 2 – 4 marks
Limited knowledge of topic and will not have discussed relevant points in much detail.
Answer shows a general lack of conceptual understanding, or ability to apply those concepts in 4 – 5 marks
Reasonable knowledge of topic but may not have discussed all relevant points in answer, or what was discussed often lacks detail.
Demonstrates a
reasonable conceptual understanding and a 5 – 7 marks
Good knowledge of topic but may not have discussed all relevant points in answer, or will have discussed all relevant points but will occasionally lack detail.
Mostly demonstrates a high level conceptual understanding and a very good ability to apply those 7 – 9 marks
Comprehensive/detailed knowledge of topic with discussion of all relevant points in answer. Consistently
demonstrates an excellent conceptual understanding and an outstanding ability to apply those concepts in answering the question.
/
9
ability to apply those concepts in answering the question. answering the question.
sound ability to apply those concepts in answering the question. concepts in answering the question.
Referencing/Str ucture/ Presentation 0 marks
Cover page not included.
Incoherent writing style with structure not appropriate to short answer format. Recurrent grammar, formatting and spelling mistakes.
No in-text referencing or reference list provided. 1 mark
Cover page not included. Largely incoherent writing style with structure not appropriate to short answer format. Recurrent grammar, formatting and spelling mistakes. Either in-text referencing or reference list missing. 2 marks
Cover page may / may not have been included. Good writing style with structure appropriate to short answer format.
Inconsistent grammar, formatting and spelling applied. In-text referencing and reference list incomplete or contains errors. 3 marks
Cover page included. Very good writing style with structure largely appropriate to short answer format. Grammar, formatting and spelling mostly accurate. In-
text referencing and reference list provided that accords with Chicago referencing system. 4 marks
Cover page included. Fluent writing style with structure appropriate to short answer format. Grammar, formatting and spelling accurate
(little to no mistakes).
In-text referencing and reference list provided that accords with Chicago referencing system.
/
4
Referencing and appropriate acknowledgement of sources
Most often errors in referencing are incidental or clearly inadvertent. In the event of a level one incident of plagiarism occurring, a student may be contacted by the University and required to undertake further training or remedial work in relation to referencing. Where the lack of correct referencing appears to contravene the University policy on plagiarism, the student’s paper will be referred to the Unit Coordinator and dealt with according to University policy. This may amount to academic misconduct.
An important aspect of the University Plagiarism Policy is recognition that not all plagiarism incidents are intentional or involves cheating. If students are not learning as expected, they will be made aware of their difficulties and helped to improve. Those who deliberately choose to cheat by way of plagiarism, however, will be identified and dealt with accordingly.
Students are strongly advised to understand their responsibilities in relation to correct referencing and should consult the unit outline and the referencing information in the Learning Hub section of the Blackboard site.
Format of assignments
Assignments cannot be handwritten and must comply with the following format requirements. Those assignments, which do not conform to these requirements without prior agreement of the unit coordinator, will either be returned to the student unmarked or will have marks deducted:
Document type: Word or pdf (pdf preferred).
Font: Arial or similar font – no smaller than 12 point in size.
Pages: Numbered in top or bottom margin.
Spacing: Appropriate line spacing and paragraph spacing.
Margins: At least 2.5 cm top, left, right & bottom.
Labelling of assignment file: Should include student’s Curtin ID number, their first and last names, and the title of the assignment (BLAW1002 Assessment 3 – Legal Case Study).
Presentation
A well-presented assessment will consider and meet the following criteria:
• Cover sheet (located on Blackboard under the ‘Assessment’ tab) must be completed and integrated into your assignment document (The system will only allow you to submit one file so you won’t be able to submit your cover page and assignment document separately).
• Appropriate sentence structure.
• Correct grammar, spelling and punctuation.
• Paragraph size and breaks appropriate.
• Consistent format.
• Appropriate use of headings and sub-headings.
• Within acceptable word limit.
• Appropriate referencing and acknowledgment of sources.
Word Limit
The total assignment should be a minimum of 2,500 words and not exceed 3,000 words.
Please provide a word count on your cover sheet. A penalty of 10% will be imposed on assignments that exceed the word limit. Markers however, have the discretion as to whether to apply the penalty for an additional 100 words, provided the discussion remains relevant. The assignment will not be assessed if it exceeds 3,250 words and will result in a ZERO mark.
The word count does not include the following:
• cover sheet;
• in-text referencing;
• referencing list; and
• headings or sub-headings.
Submission of Assignment Document
Please read the submission process carefully. Students should understand that compliance with instructions in relation to an assessment task is critical. Students MUST be aware that non-compliance with submission instructions can result in a mark of ZERO.
All assignments must be submitted by Friday, 6 November 2020 by 1PM (WST), unless an extension for legitimate reasons has been granted by the unit cocoordinator prior to the deadline.
Students are required to submit their assignment to Blackboard through a link provided in the ‘Assessment’ folder titled ‘Assessment 3 – Legal Case Study’. Submission links will be set up for each mode / location in which this unit is being studied for the relevant study period (e.g. Bentley Internal, Fully Online, Miri etc.), so please ensure that you submit your assignment document to the correct link.
The assignment will automatically be submitted to the plagiarism detection program, Turnitin. Please ensure that the version of your assignment submitted to the system is the final version and not an incomplete draft, as the version of your assignment that is in the system at the time the deadline passes will be the version that is marked for assessment purposes (even if it was a draft version that was inadvertently submitted).
Feedback on Assignments
All of the teaching staff are available to assist you with your learning in this unit. You should contact your lecturer or tutor if you need help understanding the course material or issues arising in the assignment. There is also a staffed Ed forum available for students to ask questions of the teaching team. You can also contact the unit coordinator if you are still unable to get the answer you are seeking. Please allow 48 hours (two working days) for a response to your query.
Unfortunately, it is just not possible for the teaching staff to review draft assignments for comment before submission as it is in effect double marking that would give some students an unfair advantage over others. If you require help with your assignment, either narrow the question or section of work to specific questions such as “what is meant by this part of the question?” or “do the areas of law pertain to a particular part of the Module 9 lecture?” Questions such as “have I done this part right?” or “should I include a discussion about this regulator in question 4?” will not be answered as any answer provided by the lecturer or tutor would directly/indirectly impact the mark that the querying student would receive for the assessment, causing the unfairness referred to above.
This assignment will be marked using a rubric, which will be provided to students ahead of time. In addition to providing the set feedback to students that is contained in the rubric, markers will also offer individual comments on what a student had done well and what they could have done better to earn a higher mark.
Assessments submitted early will not be marked before the due date. Please refer to the unit outline for the full procedure in relation to penalties for late submission and requests for an extension.

Cognitive Theories of Learning

Cognitive Theories of Learning
Cognitive theory of learning adopts a perspective of assessing and modifying people’s beliefs to development, adaptation, and change. The cognitive theory attempts to assess and modifying cognitions as a means of changing how people think, belief and how they act to shape their future. Individual differences represent the dimensions in which people vary in society since the cultures are diverse and dynamic social systems. Cultural variations are differences in relative emphasis. The beliefs regulate human functioning through cognitive, motivational and decisional processes. They affect whether individuals think in self-enhancing or self-debilitating ways in how they motivate themselves in difficulties and the choices they make at important decision points in life (Bandura, 2002). The beliefs contribute significantly to the quality of human functioning. People’s shared beliefs influence the type of future that they seek to achieve by using their resources and efforts to meet forcible opposition and discouragements.
Some people live in individualistically oriented systems hence changing their cognitions is so difficult. Group pursuits are usually less demanding of personal efficacy than individual pursuits. People who work independently have less need to be oriented to other people’s beliefs hence they live in their own societies. Beliefs operate in complex ways regardless of how cultural pursuits are socially structured to achieve social change. Changing someone’s beliefs involves changing their habits and it involves first finding out what makes them strong by accessing their reasoning patterning to the belief (Bandura, 2002). To change someone’s belief, it is necessary to establish their point of view and connect their beliefs to the opinion that you need to change by showing them different conclusions and better facts.

Reference
Bandura, A. (2002). Social cognitive theory in cultural context. Applied psychology, 51(2), 269-290. Retrieved from; https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/1464-0597.00092

Health Belief

Health Belief
Society’s social principles are important in efforts to promote health and prevent disease. To companies and health researchers, it is a major tool for conducting a study to find out the cure and preventive measures for diseases.
Health belief is surrounded by varying cultural and political factors globally. The study of patients ‘ medical views on the various treatment methods that occur in all traditional societies is that each approach has its own clinical theories, causes, and healing mode. Treatment modality decisions are strongly dependent on the type of views patients have about the disorder and their social support network. Health beliefs help health researchers and clinicians create effective approaches to increase awareness of risk, encourage self-efficacy for weight loss and patterns of physical activity, and decrease disease rates (Jones, Roche $ Appel, 2009). This will promote a disease-free nation.
Children are a major beneficiary of health beliefs. The children’s Health Model has been established and it emphasizes the role of the caretaker influences on children’s health beliefs and actions. The role of the caretaker is to motivate the child, ensuring the child’s illness is treated and ensuring the child perceived benefits from medicines. Perceived benefits refer to believe in the advantages of the methods suggested for reducing the risk of the disease resulting from a particular behavior (Sharma, 2016). This will decrease the levels of mortality rates.
Medical values should benefit drug-making companies. As the public continues to have a positive belief that the medications are successful, the company will be able to predict habits of consumer safety. The government will be able to collect information to determine which population will be affected in order to satisfy its citizens.
References
Jones, E. J., Roche, C. C., & Appel, S. J. (2009). A review of the health beliefs and lifestyle behaviors of women with previous gestational diabetes. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic & Neonatal Nursing, 38(5), 516-526.
Sharma, M. (2016). Theoretical foundations of health education and health promotion. Jones & Bartlett Publishers.

The Christmas Tree as a Social Object

The Christmas Tree as a Social Object
Christmas is a globally celebrated Christian holiday synonymous with gifts and the sharing of presents. It is celebrated internationally, including the non-Christian nations. However, aside from gifts, shopping, bonfires, the abundance of food and Santa Claus, the most glaring sign of the beginning of the Christmas season is the Christmas tree. The tradition of the tree and the decorations was incepted by German-Americans who spread the culture across America and England by the mid 19th century. Most homesteads purchase Christmas trees of all sizes and materials to embody the holiday spirit. As McKechnie and Tynan (2006) demonstrate, the Christmas festivity entails spending a lot of money and time characterized in mass consumerism as evidence shows increased spending and a surge in commensurate consumer debt; it is imperative to note that the holiday is spiritually and socially enriching as a result of the cultivated culture of togetherness and sharing. Thus, the Christmas tree may cause financial detriment, however, the social impact is the symbol of fellowship and love.
The Christmas tree varies in the material used whereby some people opt for the expensive variant which is an actual tree cut down while others purchase a replica of the tree carved of plastic material. The tree is then adorned with decorations which are luminous lights and bulbs as well as colorful materials. The physical aspect of the object is not as important as the effect it has in a house as it embodies the Christmas spirit of love and gathering. It gets people into the mood of festivity and happiness. The social aspect is the most vital aside from the coloring and decorations making the house look beautiful and appealing. Manifestation and display of colors are known to elicit a positive mood and initiate excitement thus the adorning of luminous items on the tree.
The Christmas tree is the universally accepted symbol of the holiday. Some families have protocols on who should decorate the tree and what should be used to decorate. Women are commonly invested in the decoration of the Christmas tree to an extent the children may be barred from decorating it. The art of decoration has evolved to the extent that a specific person has authority on the adorning activity. McKechnie and Tynan (2006) establish from their research that some female heads of their homes are territorial about the decoration by presenting information on homes such as Judy’s where no one is allowed to participate in decorating and Stella’s where the children were allowed to help but she would redecorate once they fall asleep. Christmas trees are an intricate matter to an extent lack of decoration elicited negative perception on guests as insulting. Evidently, humans attach meaning to both symbols and actions with an example of the Christmas tree and the effort to decorate. The trees are normally put up after thanksgiving and taken down in the first week of January.
The issue of sustainability entails the environmental impact since most are cut down to facilitate this tradition. People should opt for either the recyclable PVC for artificial trees or recycle them by giving them to farmers as mulch or fodder, use them to minimize soil erosion or creating a habitat for the wildlife.
The financial implication has seen an upsurge for the consumers of the Christmas trees. Since the inception of the tradition, the price has escalated and the purchasers have increased as homesteads do not want to be left behind in the culture. A Christmas tree in a house is a symbol of happiness and festivity and people are nostalgic about it to an extent they have little concern for their financial detriment that comes later. Therefore, the Christmas tree has embodied the holiday and given people a feeling of belonging and nostalgia and has defined the festivity globally.
Reference
McKechnie, S., & Tynan, C. (2006). Social Meanings in Christmas Consumption: An Exploratory Study of UK Celebrants’ Consumption Rituals. Journal of Consumer Behaviour: An International Research Review, 5(2), 130-144. Retrieved from https://www.academia.edu/download/39488158/Social_meanings_in_Christmas_consumption20151028-28564-cr059n.pdf

In many industrial processes flow and pressure measurement is a vital and an integral part

Case study C

Part One
In many industrial processes flow and pressure measurement is a vital and an integral part. The transportation of fluids relies on accurate measurement of their flow. In this project, the equipment that will be suitable to measure the pressure and flow rate of beer during transportation is orifice plate. It is created by inserting an obstructing place in the pipe which has a round hole at the center which measures the pressure on each side of the orifice (Oliveira et al. 2009). The plates are trapped between two pipe flanges. Pressure taps on each flange make it possible to measure the Pressure differential across the plate. The dimensions of the plate and the pressure differential are combined with particular properties of the fluid which in this case is beer to determine the flow rate of the fluid through the pipe, thus, making it the best instrument to measure pressure and flow rate of beer in this case. Bernoulli’s equation is used for the calculation of the incompressible liquid flow
∆P=1/2 ρV_2^2-ρV_2^2
Given physical layout of a pipe, the equation can be modified to fit the dimensions of the pipe rather than velocity. Also, the equation perfectly assumes laminar flow which is not true in the real world since there is some amount of turbulence in the flow that converts kinetic energy into heat thus adding discharge coefficient (Cd ).

Q=〖C_d〗_√(2(P_(1-P_2 ) )/ρ ×A2/√(1-[A2/A1]^2 ))
Part two
Fluid is a substance that has no fixed shape and continually flows under applied shear stress. However, its properties determine how fluid can be used in technology and engineering as well as its behavior in fluid mechanics. The properties of a fluid comprise of density (ρ), which increases with the increase of the pressure of a liquid and decreases with increase in temperature and the density of any liquid is found by P= ρRT, where P is pressure, R is universal gas constant, and T is temperature. Viscosity is another fluid property that determines the amount of fluid resistant to shear stress. It decreases with increase in temperature of a liquid. Temperature is another liquid property that determines the degree of coldness or hotness of or heat intensity level of a fluid. It is measured in Kelvin scale which is widely used in engineering because it’s independent of properties of a substance, Celsius scale, and Fahrenheit scale. Pressure is the fluid force per unit area, denoted as P (Elger, Donald F., and John A. Roberson, 2016). There is also the specific volume property which is a volume that a fluid occupies per unit mass, a specific weight which is weight possessed by unit volume of a fluid which differs with changes in acceleration and specific gravity which is the ratio of the specific weight of the given fluid to the specific weight of the standard fluid. Some of the application includes; making glass objects of varying shapes though glass melting and pouring into molds due to the liquid flowing nature (viscosity) and ability to take the shape of a container. Water pumps also use the properties of a fluid (ability to flow and differences in pressure).

The equation of state as applies to fluids
PV= mRT{R is Universal Gas Constant)
P=(m/V)RT
P= ρRT (since ρ=m/V)
M =Mass
V=volume
P=Pressure
T=Temperature

BIBILIOGRAPHY
Oliveira, J.L.G., Passos, J.C., Verschaeren, R. and van der Geld, C., 2009. Mass flow rate measurements in gas–liquid flows by means of a venturi or orifice plate coupled to a void fraction sensor. Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science, 33(2), pp.253-260.
Elger, D.F. and Roberson, J.A., 2016. Engineering fluid mechanics (pp. 170-185). Hoboken (NJ): Wiley.

Standardized Testing

Standardized Testing
Introduction
Education systems and educators throughout the country are experiencing huge amounts of pressure to demonstrate effectiveness. Each state or country use different indicators for this purpose. Unfortunately, most these education indicators which most of the countries use have rendered fault results. Lately, if the standards of education and the results of an individual student is high most people believe that the school. Education system or the student is effective. Further, that if the standard test is too low, then the student, school of education system is ineffective. In either of these cases, because the yardstick used to measure the education standards is wrong, then we are apt to erroneous results.
One of the reasons why the standardized test is still used as a indicator of effectiveness in the education sector is deceptively simple. Educators and education sectors do not understand why this indicator remits wrong and erroneous results (Kelleghan, et al, 2012). A standardized test is an examination based test, where the results of the examinations are predetermined in a standard manner. The standardized test embraces two major tests; the achievement test and aptitude test. It predicts how best students will be performing in subsequent tests (Kelleghan, et al, 2012). Some of the common tests within the standardized test include; ACT and SAT-1. These two types of tests predict how students upon completion of upper school will perform in college.
In the recent past, the country has witnessed an upsurge of protests against the standardized test regime. Some of its critics hold that the test is literally strangling learners especially in public schools (Wiliam, and Dylan, 2010). Calls on the government to adopt another education indicator have gained momentum as most of them urge that the standardized test is worthless. Some of the reasons advanced against this test include; that since the learners are aware that the system is result oriented and that the results obtained determines their future lives, they will do all that is possible to pass the tests (Wiliam, and Dylan, 2010). Some of the extreme decisions that students may make include using and abusing performance drugs and cheating in examinations.
Furthermore, teacher’s and instructor’s contracts depend on their effectiveness. Because the instructors know that student’s scores affects their livelihoods, they also engage in unethical practices such as cheating and assisting students to pass examinations (Zwick, and Rebecca, 2013). Additionally, the standardized test does not provide educational value feedback and the best model of teaching or delivery. The results are usually held at marking and education offices for months before being released to the learners and teachers (Zwick, and Rebecca, 2013). Compounding this problem, the standard quality assurance does not provide means for improving tests obtained in a particular test.
The world is moving toward technological discoveries, innovation and creativity. Unfortunately, the standardized test does not value innovation and creativity. Some of the students write creative answers on the margins of their answer sheets, but the system does not appreciate anything written outside the allowed space (Bhattacharyya, et al, 2013). Additionally, the test does not value diversity. Learners taking the test have different cultural, thinking capacities, language proficiency, family background and experience, which are not catered by this test (Bhattacharyya, et al, 2013). The standardized test treats all these learners as equals and as if they are identical.
Moreover, the standardized test tend to extend privileges to those learners from well to do social-economic background. The companies providing these services, not only do they manufacture the courses, they manufacture test results for rich learners (Graf-Webster, and Erika, 2011). A rich learner is able to employ a special or qualified instructor, who will assist the learners do their assignments (Graf-Webster, and Erika, 2011. For the poor and less fortunate learners, the school lacks even the basics for learning and hence the poor learners do not get the kind of preparation that rich learners are provided with.
Standardized test focus most on the results of the test, and therefore, teachers focus on teaching tests on the expense of developmental learning. Most of the time, learners are taught on how to handle test, pass tests and taking the tests (Graf-Webster, and Erika, 2011. There is no time allocated by the teachers to teach new ideas or concepts. Further, the test system offers an artificial learning environment. Time for learning is strictly allocated, learners do not have time to socialize with other students, and they have no time to use learning tools, ask questions or talk with their colleagues (Graf-Webster, and Erika, 2011. It is a form of prison, which is not supposed to be the case. A good education system should prepare the learners to the real world.
Conclusion
The standardized tests have indeed reduced the potentials of our students, human learning and human experience. A learner may have knowledge in a certain area, but the learner may not receive an additional education to further his interest. Standardized test only provides an artificial and a false security to the teachers, students and parents. That if a student scores well in a particular subject, it is assumed that the student has knowledge in that area, which may not necessary be the case. Students have memorized formulas and tricks necessary to pass these tests. The test only creates losers and winners in our communities and therefore based on the above argument, the standardized tests is worthless.

References
Bhattacharyya, Sumita, Mary Junot, and Hillary Clark. “Can you hear us? Voices raised against standardized testing by novice teachers.” Creative Education 4.10 (2013): 633.
Graf-Webster, Erika. “Standardized Testing: Good or Bad for Assessment of Teacher Performance, Assessment of the Education System?.” (2011).
Kelleghan, Thomas, George F. Madaus, and Peter W. Airasian. The effects of standardized testing. Vol. 1. Springer Science & Business Media, 2012.
Wiliam, Dylan. “Standardized testing and school accountability.” Educational Psychologist 45.2 (2010): 107-122.
Zwick, Rebecca, ed. Rethinking the SAT: The future of standardized testing in university admissions. Routledge, 2013.

Public Communication 1 Essay

Public Communication 1
Name
Institution

Public Communication
A public forum is open to all expression that is safeguarded under the First Amendment. Parks, sidewalks, and streets are perceived open to public debate by tradition and are designated as conventional public forums. Notably, the aforementioned public fora have always been considered so because historically, they have been dedicated to debate and assembly. As such, it has been plainly established that in these public fora, the government’s ability to limit speech is very limited. For the First Amendment, the government, in committing public forums for expressive reasons, may take reasonable restrictions on who may utilize it (Krotoszynski, 2019). The Supreme Court, therefore, defines a limited public forum as a forum that the government sets aside for expressive activities. Like conventional public forums, content-based speech limitations in an assigned public forum are subject to stringent scrutiny.
For a long time, subways have been perceived as limited public fora or public fora based on public access and different uses. However, it is important to note that this does not mean that limitations on public discourse in subway platforms are doomed from the onset. If a substantial government interest such as hazardous crowding on subways is demonstrated, limitation on the number of people who are allowed to speak or even a complete ban may be upheld. In the evaluation of ISKCON v. Lee, it is evident that it is possible to make a sturdy argument that, subways, or at a minimum, subway platforms or corridors-are mainly for the movement of people, and as such, their intention is not to serve as conventional public fora (Barron, 2006). The regulations need to have neutral content, closely tailored, and demonstrate a substantial government interest. Also, reviewing the Young v. N.Y. Transit Authority case reveals that a regulation that safeguards passengers from extortion, aggravation, unwanted touching, and threats was sustained. The decision pertaining to Young’s case was supported by far-reaching factual scrutiny, encompassing interviews. It helped to verify that because of the congestion and the narrow corridors, begging in the subway platform was perceived as a hostile activity that served to intimidate passengers.
In light of this assessment of the use of subway platforms for public discourse, I recommend that the court affirms the city council’s denial. According to the city council, holding the rally at the subway may offend the passengers, interfere with the traffic, and even pose a fire hazard. I find the city council’s reasons to be justified. As stated earlier, the government can ban meetings on subways if they are considered hazardous; in this case, the risk of a fire hazard is posed. In reference to the ISKCON v. Lee case, it can be said that subways should be left to carry on their main purpose for which they were created-to facilitate the movement of people. Notably, passengers may perceive the rally on the platform as hostile, as evidenced in the Young v. N.Y. Transit Authority case. I believe that the Freedonia Federation to Free the Falcon organization has a variety of options to choose from to hold their rally aside from the subway. As such, they can select a venue on one of the many public platforms available; after all, the government can hardly put restrictions on these platforms.

References
Barron, J. A. (2006). Constitutional law: Principles and policy, cases and materials. LexisNexis/Matthew Bender.
Krotoszynski, R. J. (2019). The disappearing First Amendment. Cambridge University Press.
Nielsen, L. B. (2009). License to harass: Law, hierarchy, and offensive public speech. Princeton University Press.

E-Business Development

E-Business Development
Name
Institution

Avoiding Plagiarism
Plagiarism is the act of presenting the work or ideas of someone else as one’s own, with or without permission, by integrating it into one’s work without full acknowledgment. Simply put, plagiarism is a fraudulent act. It entails both stealing the work/ideas of someone else and lying about it later.
It is quite easy to find information for a majority of research papers. Still, it is not always simple to add that information into one’s writing without falling into the trap of plagiarism. However, there are several strategies an individual can apply to avoid plagiarism. One of the approaches entails planning one’s paper. This is where people plan how they are going to integrate their ideas with the external sources of information and how to balance these ideas (Plagiarism.org., 2017). Another approach pertains to paraphrasing. This entails putting information found into one’s own words. It is paramount to ensure that the text found is not copied verbatim more than two words in a row.
Quoting is yet another strategy. Utilizing external evidence is vital in academic writing, but there is a need to ensure that those sources are appropriately utilized. Therefore, when the ideas of another person are being used in a research paper, they must be quoted and correctly attributed to its rightful author. Another strategy relates to citing. Every time something is quoted or paraphrased in an essay, it is essential to include an in-text citation (or footnote citation) that identifies the actual author. Every in-text citation should match up to a full reference in the bibliography or reference list at the end of the paper (Calonia, 2020). This serves to provide details as to where the information originated from, making it possible for readers to situate the source for themselves.

References
Calonia, J. (2020, May 20). How to avoid plagiarism. Retrieved from https://www.grammarly.com/blog/5-most-effective-methods-for-avoiding-plagiarism/
Plagiarism.org. (2017, May 12). Preventing plagiarism when writing. Retrieved from
https://plagiarism.org/article/preventing-plagiarism-when-writing

Digital Evidence Research

Digital Evidence
The first step is to send a preservation of evidence letter. This entails putting all parties on notice that electronic evidence will be sought. This is important since the data stored on computers change each time a user loads a new program, saves a file, or does nearly anything on a computer. The second step is to gather backup tapes. This is a call for the provision of full backups that were made weekly and monthly (Balkin et al., 2017). This step is vital because backup tapes are one of the most fertile evidence sources. The next entails gathering the diskettes. Files and essential documents may also be saved in disks by users. Therefore, diskettes are critical because they are excellent sources of evidence. The fourth step involves asking each witness about computer usage. This is essential as it will lead to the revelation of data not disclosed by other methods (Pearson & Watson, 2017). The last step is to protect the chain of custody. This requires tracking evidence from its source to what is provided in court. Tracking is crucial since it ensures that evidence is not tampered with.
Upon entering the room where the computer was located, I took custody of the whole computer, encompassing floppy diskettes, and other removable media. I then went on to identify disk regions that may have evidence. Notably, evidence in a majority of computer forensic investigations lies in the user’s emails, internet history, documents, and any downloaded illegal images (Sremack, 2015). Therefore, I applied the use the Sifting Collectors application software. This software images only those areas of a disk that may contain artifacts, data, and other evidence.
After seizing the computer evidence, I then took my time to analyze it. This entailed tying it up to the digital crime. As such, I examined each item of evidence and established its relevance to the case at hand. I retained pertinent evidence and got rid of irrelevant evidence. I then drew up conclusions based on the relevant evidence found. I finished this process by writing a report.
References
Balkin, J., Grimmelmann, J., Katz, E., Kozlovski, N., Wagman, S., & Zarsky, T. (2017). Cybercrime: Digital cops in a networked environment. NYU Press.
Pearson, S., & Watson, R. (2017). Digital triage forensics: Processing the digital crime scene. Syngress.
Sremack, J. (2015). Big data forensics – Learning Hadoop investigations. Packt Publishing.