Colonization is the extension of political and economic control over an area by a state, whose nationals have occupied the area and usually possesses organizational or technological superiority over the native population.
MOTIVES OF COLONIZATION:
Colonization has occurred through out the history in Europe. Three most influential colonizers work British, Spanish, French. These three countries had three basic motives:
Desire to spread religion.
Desire expend territory.
Using these motives they created long term effects in the culture religion and economy of areas that they colonize.
As early as the 10th cent. B.C., the Phoenicians founded trading posts throughout the Mediterranean area and later exercised political dominion over these commercial colonies.
The Greeks, from a desire for wealth or as a result of the expulsion of a political faction or the defeated inhabitants of a city, established colonies in Asia Minor and Italy, spreading Hellenic culture and stimulating trade.
BIGGEST COLONIZATION OF HISTORY:
Colonization of India
Colonization of Africa
Colonization of America
COLONIZATION IN AFRICA:
From the seventh century, Arab trade with sub-Saharan Africa led to a gradual colonization of East Africa, around Zanzibar and other bases.
After that Africa remained colonized under French, British & Portuguese.
French established equality, interracial marriages, rights & support.
British didn’t support equality they considered others lower & didn’t liked it if they adopted British culture.
Portuguese allowed interracial marriages but considered blood related Portuguese as superior
Finally struggle was made by Africans to gain independence & get rid off colonization.
COLONIZATION IN AMERICA
During the sixteenth century the work of colonizing America was left almost entirely to the people of Spain.
Colonies were established on the coasts of South and Central America.
in 1519 Cortez began that memorable expedition which soon subjected the Aztec empire of Mexico to his sway.
In a comparatively short time the whole of western South America from the lower boundary of Chili to the Caribbean coast was Spanish territory.
COLONIZATION IN INDIA :
When the British colonize India they modernized and make conveniences only for themselves.
India suffered, destruction of education system, economies ancient monuments and lively hood of people.
Living standards, sanitation, water resources and other facilities were barely provided.
The East India Company established trading posts on different parts along the India coast.
IMPACT OF COLONIZATION
SELF IMAGE & IDENTITY:
New cultures & religion was introduced but tradition culture was destroyed. Example : British brought English language but destroyed traditions.
DECISION MAKING & LEADERSHIP:
Colonization weakens decision making & leaders. Example: Tribal leadership system in Africa was destroyed.
No equality or rights were given to the natives. Example: Indians were forced to labor on constructions of road & buildings but were kept from benefiting from such.
WEALTH & RESOURCES:
Exploitation of resources occurred. Example: Tons of silver & gold were transported from America to Spain. Similarly British took valuable jewels from India etc.
“As long as imperialism exists it will, by definition, exert its domination over other countries. Today that domination is called neocolonialism.”
– Che Guevara, Marxist revolutionary, 1965
Neo Colonization is used for the exploitation rather than for development of less developed parts of world.
Kwame Nkrumah, who in 1957 became leader of newly independent Ghana, was one of the most notable figures to use the term.
HOW NEO-COLONIZATION OCCURS TODAY:
The essence of neo-colonialism is that the State which is subject to neo colonization is in theory, independent and has all the outward trappings of international power. In reality its economic system and thus its political policy is directed from outside.
METHODS AND FORMS OF NEO COLONIZATION:
In an extreme case the troops of the imperial power may occupy the territory of the neo-colonial State and control the government of it.
More often, however, neo-colonialist control is exercised through economic or monetary means.
Control over government policy in the neo-colonial State may be secured by payments towards the cost of running the State and by monetary control over foreign exchange through the imposition of a banking system controlled by the imperial power.
RESULT OF NEO COLONIZATION:
The result of neo-colonialism is that foreign capital is used for the exploitation rather than for the development of the less developed parts of the world. Investment under neo-colonialism increases rather than decreases the gap between the rich and the poor countries of the world.
STRUGGLES AGAINST NEO COLONIZATION:
The struggle against neo-colonialism is not aimed at excluding the resources of the developed world from operating in less developed countries. It is aimed at preventing the financial power of the developed countries being used in such a way as to weaken the less developed.
Non-alignment, as practiced by Ghana and many other countries, is based on co-operation with all States. Such a policy, therefore, involves foreign investment from capitalist countries, but it must be invested in accordance with a national plan drawn up by the government of the non-aligned State.
NEO COLONIZISM – A THREAT:
The growth of nuclear weapons has made, the old-fashioned balance of power out dated. Historically the mutual mass destruction prevented countries from threatening each other. But now the case is different. Rich and technologically developed countries aim to have better and more dangerous nuclear power, whereas poor countries may be low at these resources and may not be able to compete with the richer developed states. The evil of neo-colonialism is that it prevents the formation of those large units which would make impossible ‘limited war’. To give one example: if Africa was united, no major power community would attempt to control it by limited war.
Neo-colonialism is also the worst form of imperialism. For those who practice it, it means power without responsibility and for those who suffer from it, it means exploitation without redress. In the days of old-fashioned colonialism, the imperial power had at least to explain and justify at home the actions it was taking abroad. In the colony those who served the ruling imperial power could at least look to its protection against any violent move by their opponents. With neo-colonialism neither is the case.
Neo-colonialism is based upon the principle of breaking up former large united states into a number of small non-viable States which are incapable of independent development and must rely upon the former imperial power for defense and even internal security.
THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE OLD IMPERIALISM [COLONIZATION] AND THE NEW GLOBALIZATION PROCESS [NEO COLONIZATION]:
In old colonialism you at least knew who your enemy was, you felt the knife on the back. You knew what had to be done if you wanted a better life. In globalization you are captive and unaware. When the prisoners are unaware of their chains then it’s hopeless.
The US is freely threatening other countries.
After Iraq war, nearly 2.5 million people are out of their country, one million plus have been killed, 75% are without electricity and drinking water.
In the U.S. it has touched the lives of African-Americans who have had lives caught in street violence and are fighting for their lives. Suddenly Islam comes to them and they find peace, dignity and a faith they can believe in.
The underlying value of globalization is material. In this proliferation of unnecessary necessities, as Mark Twain said, result in the enrichment of the rich and the greater impoverishment of the poor, in every country. Globally, the numbers of the poor are increasing fast, the concentration of wealth is greater. That is an unlivable position.
The U.S. government’s need for an enemy, its search for new enemies is really a way of uniting the country, covering its real motives and appealing for patriotism that is called the last refuge of the scoundrel. Patriotism is not the real motive. The real motive is domination and exploitation, and to get away with it you have to have a rallying ground, an enemy. That is where the military comes in. The U.S. spends more on arms than all other countries combined.