Country Research Report Colombia About Colombia History Essay

When Gran Colombia collapsed in 1830, Colombia was one of the three countries that emerged along with Ecuador and Venezuela. In Latin America, Columbia is the fourth largest economy and in South America it is the third largest (Republic of Colombia). Colombia is the member of the United Nations, the World Trade Organization (WTO), and also the International Monetary Fund (IMF). It is also one of the continent’s most heavily populated nations. Its capital city Bogota, which was formerly known as Santa Fe de Bogota is located in the center of the country. The country has 32 administrative regions (called departamentos) plus the capital district which has its own autonomous administrative. (Industrial Field of Colombia) .

History Facts and Figures:

Official Name:

The official name of Colombia is Republica de Colombia. But the conventional long form of the name is Republic of Colombia and the short form, which is widely known, is Colombia. Earlier it was known as United States of Colombia (Republic of Colombia).

Land Areas:

The country has land area of 401,042 sq mi (1,038,699 sq km) and a total coastline of 3,207 kilometers (1,993 miles) spread between the Caribbean Sea and North Pacific Ocean.

Geography: Relative Location

Colombia looks like an odd-looking pear which has a thin top. Columbia is just about the similar dimension as of France, Germany and United Kingdom and United States is 9 times the size of this country. Located in the northwestern corner of South America, the country lies entirely within the tropics. Colombia is surrounded by Panama in northwest, by Venezuela and Brazil in the east, by Peru and Ecuador in the southwest, the three Andean ranges run north to south through the western half of the country. The eastern half of the country is low, jungle-covered plain with Amazon and Orinoco Rivers.teh Andes’ western, central and eastern cordilleras (mountain ranges) run parallel south-west to north-east. The valley of the eastern range and the fertile plateau are the most thickly populated areas of the country (Columbian Facts).

Geographical Map of Colombia

images (1).jpg

(Geography of Colombia).

Population & Flag:

According to population, The Republic of Columbia is the 27th largest country in the world . In overall population, Columbia ranks fourth in Latin America and in density it holds tenth position. The estimated population of the country (2012) is 45,239,079 with the growth rate of about 1.36 % (according to the report published by World Bank in 2012). The estimated birth rate is 17.23 per 1000 with infant mortality rate of 15.92 per 1000. The life expectancy is expected to be 74.79 and density per sq km is 43. The majority of Colombians live in the western coastal area of the country which means that the region east of the Andes mountain chain is thinly populated (Colombia).

After the end of World War II, the country’s population grew dramatically, growing by 3.2 percent per year. In 1951 the population was 11.5 million but got doubled in the year 1973 to 22.9 million. The population is expected to attain 53.2 million by the year 2015. The country was one of those few countries of Latin America to have adopted the family planning as an authorized policy and to include it in their development plans. Distribution of population is highly uneven. About 94.5 % of the population is concentrated on 42 percent of the country, in plateaus and basins over Andes cordilleras and the valleys of Magdalena and Cauca rivers. About 58 percent of the country inhibits mere 5.5 percent of the population. The largest part of the population of country lives in the Central Highlands in the pleasant and cool region and the remainder in the Caribbean lowlands (Country Overview).

According to the recent studies done in the Republic of Colombia, about 30.7% of the total population of the country consists of children below the age of 14 years, 64.2 % is the percentage of the age group between the age of 15 years and 64 years and 5.2% above 65 years age (Population of Colombia).

The flag of Columbia is inspired by Christopher’s Columbus’ flag which he used in his expedition. It has three horizontal bands. The first part is yellow, the second (middle) part is blue, and the third (bottom) part is red. Yellow color of first part represents the gold found in the country. Blue color is a sign of the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea that borders the country; it also corresponds to the equality of all races and classes in the country’s society. Red color stands for the sacrifices and blood spilled by the martyrs in the struggle of independence (Colombia Flag). 


Source: (Colombia Flag).

Francisco Miranda created the national flag of Colombia on March 12, 1807, who was an eminent figure Lin fight for independence of the country. Miranda, Lino de Clemente and Jose Sata, offered the flag at the Congress of Venezuela in 1811 and was adopted as the national flag.  In 1834, Francisco de Paula Santander wanted some modification in the flag so that the stripes should run vertically instead of horizontally.  Later in 1861, President Tomas Cipriano de Mosquera ordered that eight stars should be positioned on the blue stripes to represent the eight provinces that make the Estados Unidos de Colombia (United States of Colombia) and that the yellow stripe should be positioned in the middle.   In addition to that, he also ordered that like original the stripes should be in horizontal position, as done by Miranda in 1807. Again in 1909, Simon Bolivar ordered that Miranda’s design should be restored as the flag of Colombia .The flag was constantly modified in terms of placement of the stripes and their size. In the year 1934,   President Enrique Olaya Herrera established the present flag, which was designed by Miranda in 1807 as the National flag (National Flag of Colombia).


The official currency of Colombia is the Columbian Peso which is denoted by COP or COL$. The bills are available in the denominations of $1K, $2K, $5K, $10K, $20K, and $50K. The coins are available in $50, $100, $200, $500 and $1000 (Columbian Currency).

currency_looks_like_colom2 (1).gifcurrency_looks_like_colom1.gifcurrency_looks_like_colom2.gif

National Day:

Every year 20 July is celebrated as independence in Colombia when it claimed its freedom from Spain in the year 1810. It is happened that on July 20, 1810, Colombian nationalists stimulated the people of Bogota in streets to protest against Spanish rule. The Viceroy was forced to allow some degree of independence which later became everlasting. From then, July 20 is celebrated in Colombia as Independence Day. The Colombians are known to celebrate this day with great patriotism and enjoy with festivities, parades, traditional food and parties (National Day of Colombia).

Industrial field:

Colombia is basically a liberated market economy with key commercial and investment ties to the United States. The country’s industrial hub developed around four urban areas: Bogota (the capital city), Medellin, Cali, and Barranquilla. The other centers developed in the departments of Boyaca, Magdalena, Nariño, and Santander. The mining sector of the country comprises of oil production and coal.. Its major oil export market is the United States. Oil Production is sited primarily in the Cusiana and Cupiagua fields in the Andes foothills and in the Cano Limon field in the vicinity of the Venezuelan border. All the foreign investment in the petroleum exploration and its development are done on a profit-sharing relationship contract between the investors and Ecopetrol (the state petroleum company). Most of Colombia’s natural gas production is done in the Guajira region. The country fabricates more than 90 percent of the world’s total emerald production and it is also known to be the second-largest South American producer of gold. It is also one of the most important coal producers in Latin America. Colombia has plentiful water wealth for hydroelectric power and so is second only to Brazil in Latin America. Hydroelectric powers offer more than 70% of country’s electricity power generation. A great deal of Colombia’s hydroelectric production is situated in the mountainous northwest part of the country, which produces about 40% of the hydroelectric power (Industrial Field of Colombia).

The economic landscape of Colombia has changed considerably in the last 40 years, and it is shown by the changes in the manufacturing industry by the late twentieth century. Industrial manufacturing in Colombia is quite speckled. Manufacturing units are mostly located in the provinces of Antioquia, Cauca, in the capital region area, and some in Barranquilla, on the Atlantic coast. The most important products include basic chemicals, beverages, milling and cereal processing, oil refining, textiles, paper and derived products. Textiles and chemicals are at the top for nearly 40 % of all exports of the country. The construction industry (approx. 7000 companies) is one of the largest employment sectors in Colombia (Industry).

Commercial Field:

In the recent times, the global commercial sector represents 65% of the total world product and around 25% of business transactions in the worldwide. Particularly in the commercial sector of Colombia such as information technology, financial and banking sector have its market in the country. This commercial growth of country facilitates growth in the world and also enables to manage their natural resources and trade by generating revenues (The Service Sector in Colombia and The FTAA negotiations).

Culture and Traditions:

A diversified culture occupied Colombian territory before the Spanish have arrived. Some as sophisticated and advanced in such a way that produced San Agustin’s statue in the Huila department, profound tombs of Tierradentro in the Cauca department or in the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta the Lost City. The Spanish was arrived with an aim to take over and colonization and carried slaves along with them from Africa. Because of these reasons Colombia is recognized as diversified ethnics and cultural country where each region has some unique characteristics which discriminate it from other nations.

Accordingly the Andean culture that strongly experienced its European ancestry of a culture of Caribbean which is a blend of Indian and African legacy; roots of African culture with the pacific culture and Orinoquia culture and Amazon culture which is basically an Indian. This complex combination of American and European ancestry is not only articulated in the tradition of country although also comprises of several artistic ground such as handicrafts, cuisines, architecture, sculpture, painting, literature, film, photography, music, dance, theater and many more. Colombian culture is the summation of geographical sites, its colonizers, religious communities and many other things. All these have significant reflection in the lifestyle and religion of Colombian people. Along with this, these things also influenced the language and other aspects of Colombian life (Colombia Culture; Culture: Tradition and avant-garde).

Landforms in Colombia:

Landforms are the natural features on the surface of earth. Colombia is full of several landforms which enables it to become incredible country in the world. This country is fronted by valleys such as Caribbean, Pacific as well as Eastern Amazon which lengthen its borders Venezuela and Brazil. The western side of Colombia is crossed by three rocky equivalent ranges of the Andes Mountain which was named as Eastern, Central and Western Cordilleras. Many of the significant rivers like Cauca, Magdalena and Putumayo were climbed in the upper elevation of the mountain. These Cauca and Magdalena disconnected the three ranges of Andean Mountain, ultimately merging and later on ending in the Caribbean Sea (Landforms).

Land Division in Colombia:

The land of Colombia divided into many sub divisions which comprises of thirty two departments and one capital district. The thirty two departments of Colombia includes Amazonas, Antioquia, Arauca, Atlantico, Bolivar, Boyaca, Caldas, Caqueta, Casanare, Cauca, Cesar, Choco, Cordoba, Cundinamarca, Guainia, Huila, La Guajira, Magdalena, Meta, Narino, Norte de Santander, Putumayo, Quindio, Risaralda, San Andres y Providencia, Santander, Sucre, Tolima, Valle del Cauca, Vaupes and Vichada. Other than these departments, the Colombia has one capital district which is named as Capital de Bogota (Land Statistics).

Information about Traveler in Colombia:

In the early 00’s, the Colombia has been opened for world travelers because violence has been decreased dramatically. The diversity of climate and cultural zone in the Colombia provided something unique to the travelers. In the north of country, Caribbean beaches facilitate high class resorts with some historic colonial cities although economical beach towns next to Pacific Coast like Nuqui. In the Andean region, local population resides with the diversified culture. Despite being diversified culture, climatic zone has extreme variations which contributed beauty to the region and aid Colombia as one of the bio-diverse country in the world wide. The points of attraction in the Colombia as elaborated below (Welcome to Colombia Information).


The Colombia is the country which comprises of diversified culture and climate. This diversity of climate and culture placed this country at different platform and also these diversities attracts more travelers from the worldwide. The climate of Colombia is identified by trade winds, altitude and humidity because it is an equatorial country. The country took pleasure consistent luminosity during the year with the identical duration of day and night hours. The point of attractions of the Colombia country comprises of several natural features. The historical landmarks comprises of Capitol, Capilla Del Sangrario, cathedral on Plaza Bolivar which is a main square. The capital city Bogota includes a museum the Museo Del Oro that is one of the best Colombian museums globally. It also includes churches as Iglesia de Santa Clara and Iglesia de San Ignacio. Other than this, Cartagena on the Caribbean coast is the building of colonial walled and the white sand beaches are truly attractive. A famous Salt Cathedral in the Zipaquira which is an underground church built under a salt mine. Other than these Colombia is also full of parks such as Tayrona National park (Attractions; Attractions from Colombia). The overviews of point of attractions in the Colombia country are described underlined as below:

Museums and churches: The country has many museums and churches such as Museo Del Oro, Museo national, Museo Arqueologico, Santa Clara and San Francisco. The major and unique feature of these are, all are situated in the mid of the city.

The Mountain Cerro de Monserrate (Bogota): This Mountain gave pleasure to all travelers who come from worldwide.

The Salt Cathedrals at Zipaquira (Bogota): Zipaquira is situated in the north of Bogota. These mines have been vacant and comprises of small reserves which place like a mountain of salt.

The Island Del Rosario (Colombia): It is situated in the southwest of Cartagena which is next to the Caribbean coast. It is situated thirty kilometer in the southwest of Cartagena. This area is full of incredible scenes and sand beaches. Along with these also offered glorious coral reefs and colorful fishes.

Source: (Attractions)

The city of Cali: This is a rich city and having hot climate. This city is famous for its cigars and for exotic dishes.

San Andres (Colombia): This Island is only 13 kilometer long and 3 kilometer broad. This island is flat and plain in nature and full of coco palms. Its sunny beaches offered a place for relaxing to the travelers.

The nature reserve of Parque National los Katios (Colombia): This is one of the beautiful nature parks which are enclosed with rain forest and lakes. One of the points of attraction in the park is a waterfall of 100 meter. These natural scenes gave pleasures to all travelers who came to Colombia (Attractions; Attractions from Colombia).

Country Dialing Code:

The country dialing code is a series of numbers which is used for establishing connections between two telephones at the international platform. The dialing code of Colombia country is of two digits as 57. This dialing code allowed user to contact Colombia from another countries in the world wide. This dialing code 57 is dialed after the International Direct Dialing (IDD) and this Colombia dialing code is followed by an area code. By using complete Colombia dialing code a user may call in Colombia (Colombia Country Codes).


The voltage in Colombia country is 110 volts which is similar to the voltage utilized in the United States of America, Canada and Japan. The 110 volts has been considered as safer to use and less powerful because it has ad vantage over the high voltage like 230 volts. On the other hand, it costs more in the transmission of power to the end users by utilizing 110 volts as for this purpose copper lines must be thicker in size. For this reason wealthy countries are generally used these lower voltages (Electricity in Colombia).

In Colombia, the electricity frequency is 60 Hz. Since electricity frequency is not a major issue in regards of compatibility because in the recent time most of the electrical equipments are supportive to the multiple frequencies (Colombia Technical Information for Travelers). The plug adapters that are used in Colombia are A or B. the electrical outlets of type A and type B are shown below:

Source: (Colombia Country Codes)

The graphical representation of electricity production in Colombia country is as shown below:

Source: (Electricity in Colombia)

The attractive feature of electricity sector in Colombia is if certain area has a number then it is called Stratum. If this number is higher than that area considered as better as compared to others and the people need to pay more amounts for electricity. This system is operated by cross-subsidies and kept very simple phenomenon that the person who earns more have to pay more for electricity. This makes sure that power is accessible by everyone (Electricity in Colombia).


The Colombia is the country which comprises of diversified culture and climate. This diversity of climate and culture placed this country at different platform and also these diversities attracts more travelers from the worldwide. This country is known for their several landforms, culture and traditions. This gives additional advantage to the country for attracting more travelers. In totality, Colombia is the country which is considered as incredible place in the world wide.