During storage, further contamination of high-risk food could occur. Processes to remedy this would be to storage high-risk foods wrapped at the safe temperature. All the food should be date-labelled and the stock should be rotated and used by the date recommended.
Chilled food should immediately be placed into chilled storage, again after removing any unnecessary packaging. Meat delivered vacuum-packed should placed directly into chilled storage. Other meat should be removed from its packaging and placed in hygienic trays or containers in chilled storage.
Frozen food should be place straight into freezer storage once any unnecessary packaging has been removed. Under no circumstances should any food that has been allowed to thaw be re-frozen.
Dry goods should be placed off the off the floor into clean, dry and well ventilated storage immediately.
During food preparation, pathogenic bacterial growth and high-risk food contamination is possible. The ambient temperature exposure of the food should be limited in the preparation process. Raw and cooked foods should be stored separately and all high-risk foods should be prepared with clean equipment. All food handlers should wash their hands before touching any of the food.
All foods should be checked visually for quality and fitness upon removal from their respective storage areas. Different foods will require different preparation processes but certain requirements are standard.
All fresh fruit and vegetables should be thoroughly washed soil, bacteria, pesticide/ insecticide resides and other physical contaminations. Food should be washed in a sink designated only for purpose and should never be washed or drained in the wash-hand basin.
Frozen food, unless specified otherwise in the manufacturerâ€™s processing instructions, should be thoroughly defrosted prior to cooking. This is particularly important in respect of large joints of meat or poultry where the outside of the food may appear defrosted whilst the inside still contains ice crystal. Thorough defrosting is required so that the heat employed in cooking can penetrate the product and ensure all vegetative bacteria are killed.
Dried foods should be checked for any signs of insect infestation. Date code on the top of all packed should be checked to ensure that any product has not exceeded its shelf life.
Food that is cooked fresh and eaten while hot should not be the cause of food-bored illness. Cooking will destroy most of the bacteria associated with food poisoning that are present on food in its raw state. Toxins that survive cooking or bacteria that from heat-resistant spores will remain inactive if cooked food is kept at a minimum of 63C until served or cooled for refrigerated storage. Temperature maintenance during the cooking process is therefore an important aspect of food hygiene and food safety; if carried out improperly, cooking has that potential of rendering food hazardous to its consumer.
Overcooking will also cause food products to be unpalatable, risk burning or other irreversible spoilage and reduce the foodâ€™s quality and nutritional value. Culinary skills must balance the two extremes of overcooking and undercooking.
Prepared foods awaiting cooking must be stored under refrigeration. High-risk foods (i.e. protein foods that will undergo no further cooking) must be stored separately from other foods. If practical, separate refrigerator should be provided for low and high-risk items. Where cost or space constraints so that cooked products and products undergoing no further processing are positioned towards the top of the refrigerators whilst raw meats/ poultry are stored in the base of the refrigerator. This minimizes the cross-contamination risk.
Hot food should not be placed directly into the refrigerator but should be allowed an initial cooling period not exceeding 90 minutes, preferably utilizing a blast chiller. Hot food place directly into the refrigerator will only serve to raise the temperatures of the foods already stored store there and will also create condensation problems. All stored prepared food must be suitably covered to prevent it becoming contaminated and must be stored at the correct temperature.
Food should be handled as little as possible and, where practical, clean tongs or other utensils should be used in preference hands. Prepared foods should only be tasted to determine correct seasoning levels etc. by using a clean spoon. After each use the spoon should be thoroughly cleaned.
Food can be contaminated, toxins produced and the growth of pathogens can occur during service. For hot foods, staff should ensure that high-risk foods are served as quickly as possible. For the cold foods, high-risk foods should be removed from refrigeration and served as quickly as possible after this.
Bacteria which are harmful to humans do not constitute a risk if food kept in hot (above 63°C) or stored cold (below 8°C) for a limited period. Between these temperatures is the danger zone where bacteria can multiply most rapidly. To minimize bacterial multiplication and hence the risk of contamination, it is important to cool hot foods (and to heat cool foods) rapidly through this zone. Risks can of course be eliminated if preparation is planned so that food is served hot on completion of the cooking process.
Cooling food without benefit of blast chilling equipment can compromise the safety of the cooling food unless there is a full understanding of the function and capabilities of the different refrigeration systems. Cooling (or chilling) and freezing facilities are designed to remove large quantities of heat from the food by reducing its temperature. Holding and storage are designed to do no more than maintain the food at its required final temperature.
Possible occurrence of pathogenic bacteria survival during reheating. When reheating the food in the refrigerator, staff should ensure that the temperature reached is 75°C or above. This is to ensure that it still can keep the freshness of the food to serve the customer.
CONCLUSION QUESTION 1
Proprietors must lead the way: it is their responsibility to have controls in the place. Input will be needed from someone who understands food safety and hazard analysis. If the proprietors lack the appropriate knowledge, a member of staff may have the right training to assume responsibility on a day-to-day basis. If no one in the business has the right skills, training will be required.
1.0 INTRODUCTION QUESTION 1
Many food businesses, particularly in the manufacturing sectors, already use a system of food hazard analysis with the establishment and maintenance of critical control points, and the identification of hazards, in order to control raw materials and process operations.
Whilst a number of variations of food hazard analysis have been developed, including Assure Safe Catering and Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP), they should be regarded as guidance on applying established principles in order to control food safety problems.
The aim of food hazard analysis is to prevent food safety problems by careful planning. In this context, it would appear appropriate to give priority to ensuring that there is a coherent and consistent approach to matters relating to food hygiene. This goal can best be achieved by the application of food hazard principles and limiting detailed prescriptive provisions to cases where they are considered essential. Nevertheless, it should be noted that there is some flexibility in the manner in which food hazard analysis is conceived and applied in the present legislation.
ANSWER QUESTION 2
PRINCIPLES OF HAZARD ANALYSIS OF CRITICAL CONTROL POINTS (HACCP)
There are seven principles in Hazard Analysis of Critical Control Point to make sure that all the staff who works in kitchen will follow the HACCP procedure. The first five are a legal requirement; six and seven should be as good practice.
Principle 1 : Analyze the Hazards
Principle 2 : Determine the Critical Control Points
Principle 3 : Establish limits for each Critical Control Point
Principle 4 : Establish Critical Control Point monitoring requirements
Principle 5 : Establish corrective actions
Principle 6 : Establish procedures for ensuring the HACCP system is working as intended
Principle 7 : Establish record keeping procedures
Principle 1: Analyze the Hazards
The hazard analysis is to analyze the production of the food process and to identify the safety of food. It is contain of biological, chemical or physical properties and it can causes unsafe for human consumption. Below are a briefly explanations for the biological, chemical or physical.
Biology- is an organism that is harmful to human body and it contain of viruses, fungi and bacteria. To ensure that human get protected from the viruses, the company should provided gloves, shoe gloves, mask and sterilizer to the staff. In addition, the company should also provide the staff with to attend the seminar topic of personal hygiene. This may help the staff to get more information on personal safety and hygiene.
Chemical- is a substance and because their characteristics and effects, may cause damage to human beings health and safety. Chemical hazard that may exposure to human body is smoke, dusts, gasses, as well as vapor.
Physical- is easily harmful work which will contact to the workers as working equipment and materials. A physical hazard is normally associated with an uncontrolled recourse such as electrical, kinetic, and hydraulic. Example for physical hazard such as falling from high building and get cut from sharp equipment. To prevent the accident happen in the work place, the employers have to take notes on the equipment that they provide is safely use by the worker.
Principle 2: Determine the Critical Control Points
Critical Control Point is to determine the hazard can be controlled. In the food productions there are include the following steps in common CCP:
Principle 3: Establish limits for each Critical Control Point
The limit for a critical control point is a standard to separate acceptable from unacceptable. This is the maximum or minimum value of a physical, biological, or chemical hazard must be controlled at a critical control point to prevent, eliminate or reduce the risk of food safety at acceptable level event identification. Examples of the boundaries of the critical control points of time, temperature, humidity, water activity and pH value. Boundaries should be significant.
Principles 4: Establish Critical Control Point monitoring requirements
Monitoring is a planned sequence of observations or size, whether the evaluation of a critical control point is restricted and produce an accurate record for future use prove. Monitoring is very important for a HACCP system. Plant monitoring can be warned if there is a trend toward the lost manipulation so that it can take action to bring the process back to control in more than pole before.
Establish corrective actions
Corrective action is an action with the display when the results of monitoring in the critical control points, the pole are more than a lost manipulation. HACCP is a preventive system to correct the problem that they did not affect food safety, plant management must be planned in advance to correct potential deviations from established critical limits. Whenever a limit for a critical control point is exceeded, the plant will need to take immediate corrective action.
Establish procedures for ensuring the HACCP system is working as intended
Verification is application programs way, procedure, test and other assessment, to confirm whether in line with HACCP plan, besides monitoring. Some examples of proof are the calibration of process monitoring instruments, in a specific clearance, intuitive monitoring activities, as well as the correction of behavior. In addition, product sampling, monitoring records reviews and inspections services prove that the HACCP system.
Establish record keeping procedures
- Keep appropriate record of HACCP is HACCP system’s an important component. Accurate and complete HACCP record may very have help:
- Establish in line with it HACCP intended document;
- Trace historical composition, workmanship operation, or complete product as go wrong;
- Determine in a specific operation, if do not promptly correct, may trend lead deviation;
- Determine and narrow product recall.
HACCP system’s record should including to critical control point, place’s limit, corrective action, verify movable result, and HACCP plan includes record that danger analyzes.
The risk analysis is intended to provide guidance to the national governments for risk assessment, risk management and risk communication with regard to food related risks to human health.
It is clear from an analysis of the due diligence defence that catering control systems must be initial or reviewed in the light of the responsibilities created under the Food Safety Act 1990. Such control systems must be based on an identification of risks area throughout the catering processes and procedures. This is all the more important in the light of the requirement in Regulation 4(3) of the Food Safety (General Food Hygiene) Regulation 1995.
The purpose of risk assessment is to identify each hazard (the circumstance with potential to cause harm) and the risk (the probability of that harm happening). Typical areas that will be identified by a risk assessment will be as follows:
- Cleaning and pest control.
- Taking delivery food.
- Storage and stock rotation.
- Food preparation including cooking and temperature control.
- Refuse disposal.
- Personal hygiene and training.
This assessment should not be seen as a one-off process but should be kept under review, especially when any changes are made to ingredients, processes, equipment, staffing etc.
Having identified the risk areas through the assessment, it is necessary to create systems to control those identified risks. There is no legal requirement for the systems to be written down, but the existence of records will assist in any due diligence defence, whilst also providing a framework for good catering practice.
Risk management is a process’s identify, assessment, prioritizing risks. Once risk placed, risk management will create a plan, to reduce or influence eliminate negative event. Various strategies are, according to risk’s enterprise of type and type. Some a great deal of risk management standards, including development’s Project Management Institute, ISO (ISO), and country science and technology, and actuary society.
Risk communication is an overall and continuing risk analysis working one part. It is better that from the beginning should participate all stakeholders group. Risk communication; make stakeholder process of understanding, every stage’s risk assessment. This will help ensure clearly know all stakeholders’ logic, and consequently, limitation of meaning and risk assessment. The information may from stakeholder. Within industry related parties, for example had not publish data, key danger assessment, this may have been an important component’s risk assessment bureau necessary data. Furthermore, normally present to stakeholder (including industry and consumer), risk analysis processes a component.
CONCLUSION QUESTION 2
Although food hazard analysis was a new legal requirement in the Food Safety (General Food Hygiene) Regulations 1995, it is not a new idea, having first been introduced into food processing in the USA over 30 years ago, with food hazard analysis being applied to catering operations in the late 1970s. Since its inception, food hazard analysis has highlighted the same few basic controls over and over again:
- Selecting good raw materials and good suppliers.
- Proper equipment sanitation (especially equipment and tools used with cooked foods).
- Good personal hygiene standards (especially when handling cooked food).
- Keeping raw and cooked foods separate.
- Time and temperature controls in storage, during cooking or reheating, and chilling after heating.
The principles of HACCP had been controlled the order to the food safety. Besides, without the principles of HACCP the condition in the kitchen will become confusion. In the addition, the steps of HACCP help the staffs that in the kitchen to produce the satisfied foods to the customers. By the principles of HACCP, the foods that served not only satisfied the customers but it is also concern to the customers’ healthy. So, the staffs should measure the foods was safe and clean before served to the customers.