Code: 00113B

Practical 5 – Anthropometry

HSN305 Assessing Food

Intake and Activity

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Prac requirements

• You will need the following to complete the prac today:

o Prac manual and calculator

o Weighing scale (if available)

o Tape measure OR string/flexible tape (about 1 metre long) plus ruler

o Tissue box or other rigid/semi-rigid box around that size

o Pencil plus marker/pen

o Wear gym wear (e.g. loose-fitting T-shirt and tights/shorts) • If we were in the laboratory for this prac:

o To enter the lab, you would need to wear closed-in footwear.

o Would need to complete HSE010 – Exercise and Sport Laboratory Safety training OR HSN010 – Food

and Nutrition Laboratory Safety training, or no access!

o This year, training worth doing for general knowledge and in case of future access to lab sessions!

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In the prac today, you will measure…. • Body weight (scales or last known weight) • Height (tape measure or ruler) • Waist circumference (tape measure or string/belt) • Hip circumference (tape measure or string/belt) • Mid-arm muscle circumference (tape measure or string/belt) • Skinfolds: bicep, triceps, subscapular, iliac crest (sum of these 4 skinfolds to be used to

estimate % body fat) (Australian Institute of Fitness video) • % body fat (Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis, BIA) (video)

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Measurement: body weight

Body weight (when using scales) • Light clothing & without shoes (minimal clothing, e.g. gym wear or just underwear) • Ensure scales are placed on flat hard service and tare (zero) the scales

• Stand on centre of scales and look straight ahead. Weight should be distributed

evenly on both feet • Record the measurement (kg) (in Table 5.2 Prac manual) • Repeat measure two more times

• Calculate the mean of the 3 measurements

• If you do not have weighing scales, please state this and record your last known

weight as the mean value.

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Measurement: height

Measuring height with a tape measure or ruler

Video demonstrations of height measurement without stadiometer

• Now you try!

Measuring height using a stadiometer

• Remove shoes, position person correctly: feet, buttocks, shoulders in line; head position

• Breathe in deeply and take the measurement (when holding breath) • Record the measurement to nearest 1 decimal place (cm) (in Table 5.2 Prac manual) • Repeat measure two more times. Calculate the mean of your 3 measurements

Video demonstration of height measurement using a stadiometer:

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Measurement: waist circumference

Waist circumference (tape measure) • Perform measurement over light clothing (ideally no clothing) • Assume a relaxed standing position with arms folded across chest (if

someone else is taking your measurement) • Locate natural waist or at the umbilicus level • Breathe normally and take the measurement at the end of a normal

expiration

• Measure in cm to the nearest 1 decimal place and record measure (Table 5.2) • Repeat measure two more times. Calculate the mean of 3 measurements

Video demonstration of waist circumference measurement (starts at 1:42)

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Measurement: hip circumference

Hip circumference (tape measure) • Perform measurements over light clothing (or ideally no clothing) • Assume a relaxed standing position with the arms by the side, slightly

away from body (if someone else is taking your measurement) • Position tape measure laterally (at the side), at the level of the

maximum protrusion of the gluteal muscles (i.e. bottom). • Measure in cm to the nearest 1 decimal place and record measure • Repeat measure two more times. Calculate the mean of 3

measurements

Video demonstration of hip circumference measurement (starts at 2:48)

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Measurement: mid-upper arm circumference

Mid-upper arm circumference, MUAC (tape measure) • Measured halfway between the inferior border of the

acromion process and the top of the olecranon process; arm

should be hanging relaxed

• Measure in cm to the nearest 1 decimal place and record

measure (in Table 5.2) – this gives the mid-upper arm

circumference. • Repeat measure two more times. Calculate the mean of 3

measurements

Video demonstration of MAMC measurement (starts at 0:25)

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BZcgppBXBlU Image: http://www.jispcd.org/article.asp?issn=2231- 0762;year=2014;volume=4;issue=5;spage=122;epage=125

;aulast=Yallamraju

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Measurement: skinfolds

Skinfold Measurements

Key points to remember: • Skinfolds are always measured on right side of the body in Australia

• Skinfolds are picked up with the thumb and forefinger (try this at home once you have watched the video

demonstration) • Skinfold is grasped so that a double fold of skin, plus the underlying subcutaneous adipose tissue, is held

between the thumb and index finger. Be careful not to incorporate underlying muscle tissue. If

necessary, have person flex muscle to assist in determining this. • 4 sites: bicep, tricep, subscapular, iliac crest • Require highly skilled and trained technicians and repeated accurate location of measurement sites

Video demonstration of skinfold measurements

(starts at 4:01)

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10

5 MIN BREAK

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Measurement: % body fat (using BIA)

% Body Fat (Bioelectric Impedance Analysis) • Measures the electrical impedance (resistance) to flow of electric

current passed through body tissues; can estimate total body water

and fat free body mass

• Fat mass is derived from difference between body weight and fat free

mass

• Machine needs to be set up appropriately first, by entering the sex

and age of the person, as the algorithms depend on these factors. • Remove shoes and socks

• Subject stands on BIA machine

• Weak electrical signal is sent from metal electrodes through body;

voltage is measured to calculate impedance (resistance) of the body

Video demonstration of BIA (start at 2:00):

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Sample Calculations: BMI

e.g. If weight = 55 kg and height = 164 cm, i.e. 1.64 m:

BMI = 55 /(1.64) 2

= 55/2.69

= 20.4 kg/m2 = healthy weight

http://healthyweight.health.gov.au/wps/portal/Home/get-started/are-you-a-healthy-weight/bmi/

Body Mass Index (BMI) = weight (kg)

height (m)2

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BMI

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• Same BMI.

• Same body

composition?

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Sample Calculations: MUAMC and AMA

Complete and record Table 5.3

Mid-arm muscle circumference, MUAMC (mm)

MUAMC = MUAC – ( π x TSK )

= 254 – (3.14 x 13.5)

= 211.61 mm

Prac manual, page 61; Gibson text book, page 286

Using data from Table 5.2, • Mid-upper arm circumference

(MUAC)

e.g. 254 mm

• triceps skinfold (TSK)

e.g. 13.5 mm

Upper arm muscle area, AMA (mm2

)

AMA = (MUAC – ( π x TSK))2

/ 4π

= (254 – (3.14 x 13.5))2

/(4 x 3.14)

= 3565 mm2

Convert mm2

into cm2 by dividing by 100, so

= 35.65 cm2

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Body Fat %, using sum of four skinfolds (Womersley & Durnin 1977):

Fat % = a (log10 sum of 4 skinfolds) + b

Choose the equation from Prac Manual, p. 63, based on your gender and age

(for appropriate a and b values). • e.g. female, 24 years old

• sum of four skinfolds = (bicep + tricep + subscapular + iliac

crest) = 51.7mm

For a female aged 20-29 years, the equation will be:

Fat % = (33.539 * (Log10 51.7)) – 31.057

= (33.539 * 1.713) – 31.057

= 57.47 – 31.057

= 26.41% Record this value in your Table 5.3 Prac Manual, page 63

Sample Calculations: Fat %

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Where do I enter my data?

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HSN305 Class Database

https://www.deakin.edu.au/apps/health/HSN305

*Remember, data from all pracs is due in the database by Sunday 9th August 2020 11:59 pm

*Log in and enter ALL of your data on ONE OCCASION ONLY, i.e. do it once, when you have

completed all pracs and collected all measures!

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• Calculate d (deviation): the difference between the 1st and 2nd measures (1st measure – 2nd measure) for each subject, from 1 to 10, so = 9.9-9.3

=0.6 etc

• Calculate d2

square for each subject from 1 to 10 = (0.6 x 0.6)=0.36

• Add all d2

values to get sum of d2

= 0.36 + 0.01+ etc.… = 2.12

• divide by 2n (where n is number of subjects) • = 2.12/ (2*10)= 0.106

So TEM = square root of 0.106 = 0.3255

Now we need to convert TEM value into percentage. See this paper for the formula http://www.scielo.br/pdf/rbme/v11n1/en_24109.pdf

TEM % = (TEM/VAV) x 100, where VAV is variable average value.

To calculate VAV, we take the average of the 2 measurements for each subject, then average of this value for all subjects (i.e. sum of all averages/10)

(not shown here). So VAV = 9.72

Intra-tester TEM% = (0.325/9.72)*100 = 3.35% Intra = within (Latin)

Sample Calculations: Optional activity question 1

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

A 9.9 8.6 10.6 10.5 11.4 9.9 10.8 9.4 7.6 8.8

A 9.3 8.7 11.6 10.3 11.7 9.6 11.0 9.1 7.4 8.2

d 0.6 -0.1 -1 0.2 -0.3 -0.3 0.2 -0.3 -0.2 -0.6

d

2

0.36 0.01 1 0.04 0.09 0.09 0.04 0.09 0.04 0.36

Intra tester TEM Tricep TEM = sum of d2

2 n

Technical Error of Measurement (TEM) is an accuracy

index to express the error margin in anthropometry.

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Calculate average measures taken for tester B (Note: averages for tester A are already provided). Then follow the same steps as before: • Calculate d (i.e. 1st measure Tester A – 2nd measure Tester B) • Calculate d2

• Add all d2

values: sum of d2

= 3.85

• Divide by 2n (where n is number of subjects) d2

• So TEM = 0.438

TEM % = (TEM/VAV) x 100. Again, for VAV, we take the average of the 2 measurements (average A and average B) for each subject, then

average of this value for all subjects (i.e. sum of all averages/10) (not shown here). So VAV = 9.985

Inter-rater TEM% = (0.438/9.985)*100 = 4.39% Inter = between (Latin)

Inter tester TEM Tricep TEM = sum of d2

2 n

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Average A 10.1 8.7 11.6 11 12.7 10.3 11.8 9.4 8.2 8.7

B 9.5 8.7 11.1 10.3 11.7 9.9 10.8 9.4 7.6 8.8

B 9.7 8.6 11.1 10.5 11.4 9.6 11 9.1 7.4 8.2

Average B 9.6 8.65 11.1 10.4 11.55 9.75 10.9 9.25 7.5 8.5

d 0.5 0.05 0.5 0.6 1.15 0.55 0.9 0.15 0.7 0.2

d

2

0.25 0.0025 0.25 0.36 1.3225 0.3025 0.81 0.0225 0.49 0.04

Sample Calculations: Optional activity question 1

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MENTIMETER POLL: Questions for Seminar 3

Go to https://www.menti.com/

Enter the digit code (6 digits): 88 47 21

Let us know if you have any questions relating to the pracs and/or

assignment that you would like to have answered in seminar 3.

We will select and respond first to the most frequently asked

questions during this seminar

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