Influence of the US-American Christian Fundamentalist Groups

Influence of the US-American Christian Fundamentalist Groups on the US Politics 1.0 Executive Summary The level of adherence to religion in the United States (U.S.) is higher in comparison to other countries.
The American Constitution proscribes government interference in religious matters under the First Amendment. The Amendment allows people to practice religion. In addition, there are many faiths perhaps due to the multicultural heritage in the country.
The purpose of this research paper is to delve into the influence of religion on American politics. Unsurprisingly therefore, Christian fundamentalist groups influence American politics.
More specifically, this paper attempts to provide a succinct explanation of the influence of the fundamentalist groups on politics in the U.S.
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More specifically, this paper attempts to provide a succinct explanation of the influence of the fundamentalist groups on politics in the U.S.
(Lawrence, 1989). In addition, the research paper discusses fundamentalism, particularly its general definition and historical background.
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(Lawrence, 1989). In addition, the research paper discusses fundamentalism, particularly its general definition and historical background.
The research paper then provides an analysis of the origin and history of Christian fundamentalism in America from Puritanism to Pluralism, Calvinism to Puritanism and civil religion with the U.S.
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The research paper then provides an analysis of the origin and history of Christian fundamentalism in America from Puritanism to Pluralism, Calvinism to Puritanism and civil religion with the U.S.
Furthermore, the paper will explore the formation of Christian rights groups, the Black church and Mormons across 1950s, 1960s to 1990s.
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Furthermore, the paper will explore the formation of Christian rights groups, the Black church and Mormons across 1950s, 1960s to 1990s.
An analysis of the Christian fundamentalist groups reveals that religion has both adverse and positive influence on American politics.
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An analysis of the Christian fundamentalist groups reveals that religion has both adverse and positive influence on American politics.
Over 75 percent of Americans identify themselves with Christianity. Perhaps, this explains the predominance of the role of Christianity fundamentalist groups in American politics.
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Over 75 percent of Americans identify themselves with Christianity. Perhaps, this explains the predominance of the role of Christianity fundamentalist groups in American politics.
In fact, other non-Christian religions such as Judaism, Hinduism and Buddhism constitute less that 5 percent while another 15 percent have no affiliation to any religion.
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In fact, other non-Christian religions such as Judaism, Hinduism and Buddhism constitute less that 5 percent while another 15 percent have no affiliation to any religion.
Most American politicians often discuss their religious affiliations during political campaigns. In addition, most religious figures as well as churches play an active role in American politics.
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Most American politicians often discuss their religious affiliations during political campaigns. In addition, most religious figures as well as churches play an active role in American politics.
To underscore the centrality of politics in the U.S., President Thomas Jefferson struggled to secure a second term in office after unleashing controversial thoughts regarding religion.
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To underscore the centrality of politics in the U.S., President Thomas Jefferson struggled to secure a second term in office after unleashing controversial thoughts regarding religion.
The research paper delves in the role of Christian fundamentalists in the American politics. Lastly,
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The research paper delves in the role of Christian fundamentalists in the American politics. Lastly,
the paper attempts to trace the changes that have occurred in relation to Christian fundamentalist groups.
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the paper attempts to trace the changes that have occurred in relation to Christian fundamentalist groups.
2.0 Introduction The Bill of Rights in the U.S. Constitution under the First Amendment addresses the place of religion within the American politics.
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2.0 Introduction The Bill of Rights in the U.S. Constitution under the First Amendment addresses the place of religion within the American politics.
Questions arise as to whether the U.S. was founded like a Christian country and whether the wall that separate religion and politics mean anything.
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Questions arise as to whether the U.S. was founded like a Christian country and whether the wall that separate religion and politics mean anything.
In 1802, Thomas Jefferson wrote a letter addressed to the Danbury Baptists to the effect that the separation wall eliminates any religious dimension in the American politics.
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In 1802, Thomas Jefferson wrote a letter addressed to the Danbury Baptists to the effect that the separation wall eliminates any religious dimension in the American politics.
However, the letter and the First Amendment that place the separation wall do not deny the American politics a religious quintessence.
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However, the letter and the First Amendment that place the separation wall do not deny the American politics a religious quintessence.
Like any other tax-exempt organizations, religious groups must avert endorsing candidates gunning for political offices. Moreover, Christians are found within the Republican Party as well as the Democratic Party.
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Like any other tax-exempt organizations, religious groups must avert endorsing candidates gunning for political offices. Moreover, Christians are found within the Republican Party as well as the Democratic Party.
Most evangelical Christians support Republicans while secular voters together with the liberal Christians support Democrats.
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Most evangelical Christians support Republicans while secular voters together with the liberal Christians support Democrats.
Ordinarily, Christian fundamentalists have a higher propensity to participate in mainstream political activities in comparison to average Americans.
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Ordinarily, Christian fundamentalists have a higher propensity to participate in mainstream political activities in comparison to average Americans.
The victory of President Bush over John Kerry in 2004 Presidential Elections is attributable to these fundamentalist Christians.
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The victory of President Bush over John Kerry in 2004 Presidential Elections is attributable to these fundamentalist Christians.
All polities have a religious dimension. Hence, a complete separation between the state and politics amounts to impracticality. The impenetrable separatist wall only prohibits governments from interfering with religion, be it detrimental or supportive.
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All polities have a religious dimension. Hence, a complete separation between the state and politics amounts to impracticality. The impenetrable separatist wall only prohibits governments from interfering with religion, be it detrimental or supportive.
An inevitable link between the church and the state exist. Hence, the U.S. advocates for religious liberty. However,
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An inevitable link between the church and the state exist. Hence, the U.S. advocates for religious liberty. However,
it also prevents religious groups for manipulating political processes to push their practices and beliefs forward.
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it also prevents religious groups for manipulating political processes to push their practices and beliefs forward.
Religious groups amass influence to the extending of dictating what happens in political processes. Whenever governments assist organized religious affiliations,
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Religious groups amass influence to the extending of dictating what happens in political processes. Whenever governments assist organized religious affiliations,
they become overly addicted to aid. Notably, the clauses on free exercise and establishment bear equal weight.
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they become overly addicted to aid. Notably, the clauses on free exercise and establishment bear equal weight.
This guarantees religious freedom as well as averts government entanglement and protects political stability. In addition, Marsden (1980) notes,
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This guarantees religious freedom as well as averts government entanglement and protects political stability. In addition, Marsden (1980) notes,
Christian fundamentalist organizations continue to take advantage of this opportunity to stamp their authority in American politics.
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Christian fundamentalist organizations continue to take advantage of this opportunity to stamp their authority in American politics.
Presidential candidates no longer assume the influence of these groups in their campaigns. 3.0 Fundamentalism 3.1 General Definition Fundamentalism refers to the movement involving American Protestantism.
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Presidential candidates no longer assume the influence of these groups in their campaigns. 3.0 Fundamentalism 3.1 General Definition Fundamentalism refers to the movement involving American Protestantism.
This movement arose in early 20th century as a response to modernism.
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This movement arose in early 20th century as a response to modernism.
Put differently, fundamentalism is a response to Modernist theology. In addition,
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Put differently, fundamentalism is a response to Modernist theology. In addition,
fundamentalism emphasizes on the Bible’s infallibility and not merely on matters to do with morals and faith alone coupled with a factual and an unembellished historical record.
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fundamentalism emphasizes on the Bible’s infallibility and not merely on matters to do with morals and faith alone coupled with a factual and an unembellished historical record.
Fundamentalism holds certain Christian beliefs and doctrines dear. Such doctrines include the birth of Jesus Christ by Virgin Mary, the Second Coming of Christ,
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Fundamentalism holds certain Christian beliefs and doctrines dear. Such doctrines include the birth of Jesus Christ by Virgin Mary, the Second Coming of Christ,
creation account, physical resurrection and atonement through the death of Jesus Christ (Marty & Scott, 1993).
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creation account, physical resurrection and atonement through the death of Jesus Christ (Marty & Scott, 1993).
Fundamentalism emphasizes on stringent adherence to particular theological doctrines. Put differently, fundamentalism connotes unwavering adherence to certain irreducible beliefs. Fundamentalist groups focus on literalism by believing in certain ideologies, scriptures as well as dogmas.
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Fundamentalism emphasizes on stringent adherence to particular theological doctrines. Put differently, fundamentalism connotes unwavering adherence to certain irreducible beliefs. Fundamentalist groups focus on literalism by believing in certain ideologies, scriptures as well as dogmas.
In addition, fundamentalism focuses on maintenance of out-group and in-group distinctions. To maintain these distinctions, purity of initial ideas matter.
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In addition, fundamentalism focuses on maintenance of out-group and in-group distinctions. To maintain these distinctions, purity of initial ideas matter.
Fundamentalist groups also reject divergent opinions in preference for fundamentals. Pejoratively, some people use the term ‘right-wing fundamentalists’ to refer to those conservatives.
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Fundamentalist groups also reject divergent opinions in preference for fundamentals. Pejoratively, some people use the term ‘right-wing fundamentalists’ to refer to those conservatives.
Fundamentalism aims at reaffirming the major theological tenets as well as guards them against problems posed by higher criticism as well as liberal theology.
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Fundamentalism aims at reaffirming the major theological tenets as well as guards them against problems posed by higher criticism as well as liberal theology.
Anchored on five major fundamentals – scriptural inerrancy, virgin birth, atonement, resurrection and miracles by Jesus Christ – fundamentalism emphasizes on the need to adhere to these fundamentals.
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Anchored on five major fundamentals – scriptural inerrancy, virgin birth, atonement, resurrection and miracles by Jesus Christ – fundamentalism emphasizes on the need to adhere to these fundamentals.
Fundamentalists reject subsistence of commonalities with religious traditions. Fundamentalism opposes the critical approach towards the Bible adopted by liberals. Most importantly,
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Fundamentalists reject subsistence of commonalities with religious traditions. Fundamentalism opposes the critical approach towards the Bible adopted by liberals. Most importantly,
fundamentalism is predicated upon pure natural assumptions (Beale, 1986). Over time, the general definition of fundamentalism has changed.
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fundamentalism is predicated upon pure natural assumptions (Beale, 1986). Over time, the general definition of fundamentalism has changed.
The expansion of the general definition of fundamentalism has occurred within academia, ordinary language and within the press. Pejoratively,
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The expansion of the general definition of fundamentalism has occurred within academia, ordinary language and within the press. Pejoratively,
the concept seems to have expanded to encompass an unquestionable faithfulness to fundamental beliefs and principles.
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the concept seems to have expanded to encompass an unquestionable faithfulness to fundamental beliefs and principles.
Today, there exists Hindu fundamentalism, Catholic fundamentalism, Islamic fundamentalism, Buddhist fundamentalism, Mormon fundamentalism as well as Darwinian, atheist and secular fundamentalism.
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Today, there exists Hindu fundamentalism, Catholic fundamentalism, Islamic fundamentalism, Buddhist fundamentalism, Mormon fundamentalism as well as Darwinian, atheist and secular fundamentalism.
Perhaps, religious scholars have led to the expansion, albeit indirectly.
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Perhaps, religious scholars have led to the expansion, albeit indirectly.
3.2 Historical Background Traditional Christian practices and teachings faced innumerable challenges in various fronts in the late 19th century. First,
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3.2 Historical Background Traditional Christian practices and teachings faced innumerable challenges in various fronts in the late 19th century. First,
geological discoveries showed a contradiction between the creation account according to Genesis and Charles Darwin’s evolution theory.
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geological discoveries showed a contradiction between the creation account according to Genesis and Charles Darwin’s evolution theory.
In addition, Herbert Spencer influenced philosophers and social scientists in advocating social evolution. This challenges the fundamental Christian teachings. Furthermore,
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In addition, Herbert Spencer influenced philosophers and social scientists in advocating social evolution. This challenges the fundamental Christian teachings. Furthermore,
some religious ministers from varied denominations stopped emphasizing on conversion of people to religious life.
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some religious ministers from varied denominations stopped emphasizing on conversion of people to religious life.
They focused on social gospel. Worse still, some scholars adopted a historical and critical approach towards Biblical interpretation. This gave rise to modernism.
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They focused on social gospel. Worse still, some scholars adopted a historical and critical approach towards Biblical interpretation. This gave rise to modernism.
While modernism solved many problems, it somehow contradicted Biblical passages.
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While modernism solved many problems, it somehow contradicted Biblical passages.
To the American Protestantism, Biblical authority had roots in the sola Scriptura doctrine that focused on Scripture alone to maintain scriptural integrity.
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To the American Protestantism, Biblical authority had roots in the sola Scriptura doctrine that focused on Scripture alone to maintain scriptural integrity.
The 1920s intellectual controversy affected the Protestant denomination. The controversy culminated to loss of control of major denominations.
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The 1920s intellectual controversy affected the Protestant denomination. The controversy culminated to loss of control of major denominations.
Christian fundamentalist groups in America had an important role in promoting and defending Biblical inerrancy. As a movement, fundamentalism emerged in the United States (U.S.) in the 19th century.
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Christian fundamentalist groups in America had an important role in promoting and defending Biblical inerrancy. As a movement, fundamentalism emerged in the United States (U.S.) in the 19th century.
It spread fast to conservatives amongst the Baptists as well as other denominations in early 20th century.
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It spread fast to conservatives amongst the Baptists as well as other denominations in early 20th century.
The root of the fundamentalism concept stems from the 1978-1897 Niagara Bible Conference that defined the fundamental principles to Christian beliefs in 1910. This conference solidified the fundamentalist beliefs in the U.S.
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The root of the fundamentalism concept stems from the 1978-1897 Niagara Bible Conference that defined the fundamental principles to Christian beliefs in 1910. This conference solidified the fundamentalist beliefs in the U.S.
A publication in 1910 titled as The Fundamentals, Presbyterian laymen Milton and Lyman Stewart popularized the fundamentalism concept (Mark, 1992).
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A publication in 1910 titled as The Fundamentals, Presbyterian laymen Milton and Lyman Stewart popularized the fundamentalism concept (Mark, 1992).
This gave rise to the Fundamentalist-Modernist Controversy that appeared during the turn of the 19th century amongst some American Protestants.
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This gave rise to the Fundamentalist-Modernist Controversy that appeared during the turn of the 19th century amongst some American Protestants.
The controversy proceeded in the 1920s. During 1910s, the theological conservatives rallied around these five fundamentals earned the term ‘fundamentalists.’ Evidently,
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The controversy proceeded in the 1920s. During 1910s, the theological conservatives rallied around these five fundamentals earned the term ‘fundamentalists.’ Evidently,
fundamentalism as a movement began at the turn of the 19th century through the early 20th century in the circles of American Protestants with the intent of defending fundamental beliefs against corrosive liberalism and modernity effects that had began growing within Protestantism.
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fundamentalism as a movement began at the turn of the 19th century through the early 20th century in the circles of American Protestants with the intent of defending fundamental beliefs against corrosive liberalism and modernity effects that had began growing within Protestantism.
Fundamentalism became very important in American in early 20th century across the 21st century. 4.0 Influence of the U.S.-American Religious Christian Fundamentalist Groups in U.S.
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Fundamentalism became very important in American in early 20th century across the 21st century. 4.0 Influence of the U.S.-American Religious Christian Fundamentalist Groups in U.S.
Politics 4.1 Origin Despite its historical antecedents, Christian fundamentalism is a distinctively modern 20th century.
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Politics 4.1 Origin Despite its historical antecedents, Christian fundamentalism is a distinctively modern 20th century.
Christian fundamentalism started back in the late 19th century as well as early 20th century amongst the America and the British Protestants.
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Christian fundamentalism started back in the late 19th century as well as early 20th century amongst the America and the British Protestants.
Primarily, Christian fundamentalism reacted to both cultural modernism and theological liberalism.
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Primarily, Christian fundamentalism reacted to both cultural modernism and theological liberalism.
By arguing that modernist theologians of the 19th century rebuffed or misconstrued particular doctrines such as Biblical inerrancy, Christian fundamentalists support the five basic doctrines. Christian fundamentalist movements in the U.S.
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By arguing that modernist theologians of the 19th century rebuffed or misconstrued particular doctrines such as Biblical inerrancy, Christian fundamentalists support the five basic doctrines. Christian fundamentalist movements in the U.S.
have been opposed to relaxation of moral and social mores as well as unwelcome liberalization. The Christian fundamentalism concept traces its roots to 1970s,
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have been opposed to relaxation of moral and social mores as well as unwelcome liberalization. The Christian fundamentalism concept traces its roots to 1970s,
particularly in mass media. Conservative evangelicals used the Christian fundamentalist term within conventional Protestant denominations.
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particularly in mass media. Conservative evangelicals used the Christian fundamentalist term within conventional Protestant denominations.
In early 20th century, Protestant denominations focused on Christian fundamentalism. In most contemporary religions and nations, fundamental doctrines within the nexus of social and moral issues revolved around society-state interactions.
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In early 20th century, Protestant denominations focused on Christian fundamentalism. In most contemporary religions and nations, fundamental doctrines within the nexus of social and moral issues revolved around society-state interactions.
By wielding influence in the society, Christian fundamentalist groups influenced government actions and policy-making processes.
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By wielding influence in the society, Christian fundamentalist groups influenced government actions and policy-making processes.
In addition, the ever-increasing influence of these groups cannot go unnoticed. The notion that countries secularize because of modernization holds no water.
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In addition, the ever-increasing influence of these groups cannot go unnoticed. The notion that countries secularize because of modernization holds no water.
After the World War II (WWII), secularization and decline of Christian faith in the U.S.
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After the World War II (WWII), secularization and decline of Christian faith in the U.S.
matched seamlessly with scientific application to social problems such as disease, poverty and hunger coupled with technological development. Ostensibly, this would culminate to sustained progress within the society. This would push religion to the periphery.
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matched seamlessly with scientific application to social problems such as disease, poverty and hunger coupled with technological development. Ostensibly, this would culminate to sustained progress within the society. This would push religion to the periphery.
In line with modernization theory, societies secularize as they industrialize and modernize. Critics argued that Christian theologians fought a battle in futility in attempting to hinder secularization.
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In line with modernization theory, societies secularize as they industrialize and modernize. Critics argued that Christian theologians fought a battle in futility in attempting to hinder secularization.
Retaining significance and popular relevance could only amount to influencing the flourishing social movements that focused on social change amongst common Americans.
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Retaining significance and popular relevance could only amount to influencing the flourishing social movements that focused on social change amongst common Americans.
In 1960s, the bonding of political and spiritual concerns involved left-leaning theologians within neo-Marxist-influenced emancipation theological movements in Far East,
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In 1960s, the bonding of political and spiritual concerns involved left-leaning theologians within neo-Marxist-influenced emancipation theological movements in Far East,
Caribbean and Latin America. Most people perceive Christian fundamentalism as politically and socially conservative and backward looking as well as opposed to dynamism.
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Caribbean and Latin America. Most people perceive Christian fundamentalism as politically and socially conservative and backward looking as well as opposed to dynamism.
In the U.S., born again Christians bear the tag ‘Christian fundamentalists.’ Oftentimes, Christian fundamentalists lean towards conservative political ideology.
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In the U.S., born again Christians bear the tag ‘Christian fundamentalists.’ Oftentimes, Christian fundamentalists lean towards conservative political ideology.
The first defensiveness of the beleaguered Christian fundamentalist groups metamorphosed into an influential political offensive that sought to change the prevailing political and social realities of the society-state relations.
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The first defensiveness of the beleaguered Christian fundamentalist groups metamorphosed into an influential political offensive that sought to change the prevailing political and social realities of the society-state relations.
They perceived leaders as performing corruptly and inadequately by relating contemporary developments with religious texts to challenge all the secular values.
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They perceived leaders as performing corruptly and inadequately by relating contemporary developments with religious texts to challenge all the secular values.
They propose radical reforms. Christian fundamentalist leaders gained support from people who felt the incongruity of societal developments and community interests.
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They propose radical reforms. Christian fundamentalist leaders gained support from people who felt the incongruity of societal developments and community interests.
Essentially, Christian fundamentalists took advantage of the failure of the modernity promise. As a reactive movement, the groups oppose the unwelcome ills of modernization.
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Essentially, Christian fundamentalists took advantage of the failure of the modernity promise. As a reactive movement, the groups oppose the unwelcome ills of modernization.
They argued that socio-economic changes and technical progress should not curtail God’s will.
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They argued that socio-economic changes and technical progress should not curtail God’s will.
As earlier mentioned, the rapid change experienced after WWII challenged the traditional cultures, beliefs and norms that faced pressure to acclimatize.
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As earlier mentioned, the rapid change experienced after WWII challenged the traditional cultures, beliefs and norms that faced pressure to acclimatize.
The world became increasingly materialist. The worth of people depended on their socio-economic status.
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The world became increasingly materialist. The worth of people depended on their socio-economic status.
This way, religion was pushed to the periphery. According to these Christian Fundamentalist groups, these economic and cultural changes caused societal salience towards religion.
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This way, religion was pushed to the periphery. According to these Christian Fundamentalist groups, these economic and cultural changes caused societal salience towards religion.
This bred Christian militancy, Christian fundamentalism. Christian fundamentalists in the U.S.
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This bred Christian militancy, Christian fundamentalism. Christian fundamentalists in the U.S.
stamped their authority in the country by writing down their declarations about a century ago in order to safeguard fundamental religious faiths such as Biblical inerrancy.
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stamped their authority in the country by writing down their declarations about a century ago in order to safeguard fundamental religious faiths such as Biblical inerrancy.
In addition, they opposed intolerable and objectionable inroads of material modernity.
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In addition, they opposed intolerable and objectionable inroads of material modernity.
Christian fundamentalist groups remained apolitical from 1910s to 1970s. However, from this period, they realized that retreatment amounted to a disastrous and self-defeating strategy.
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Christian fundamentalist groups remained apolitical from 1910s to 1970s. However, from this period, they realized that retreatment amounted to a disastrous and self-defeating strategy.
Primarily, retreating meant that they could not change what they deemed as undesirable developments associated with modernism.
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Primarily, retreating meant that they could not change what they deemed as undesirable developments associated with modernism.
Consequently, Christian fundamentalist groups changed from 1970s. Christian fundamentalists in the U.S. increasingly become strident and raucous within the political constituency.
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Consequently, Christian fundamentalist groups changed from 1970s. Christian fundamentalists in the U.S. increasingly become strident and raucous within the political constituency.
The formation of the Moral Authority by Jerry Falwell in 1979 and the emergence of Pat Buchanan and Pat Robertson marked the beginning of the immersion of Christian fundamentalist groups in American politics.
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The formation of the Moral Authority by Jerry Falwell in 1979 and the emergence of Pat Buchanan and Pat Robertson marked the beginning of the immersion of Christian fundamentalist groups in American politics.
In the U.S., Christian fundamentalists opposed relaxation of moral and social mores as well as excessive liberalization. Today,
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In the U.S., Christian fundamentalists opposed relaxation of moral and social mores as well as excessive liberalization. Today,
Christian fundamentalists constitute some of the most successful and affluent people in the U.S.
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Christian fundamentalists constitute some of the most successful and affluent people in the U.S.
After the attainment of the anticipated political and social prominence in early 20th century, Christian fundamentalism re-emerged. Christian fundamentalists could push their political ideals through this medium.
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After the attainment of the anticipated political and social prominence in early 20th century, Christian fundamentalism re-emerged. Christian fundamentalists could push their political ideals through this medium.
Immense economic, social as well as political upheavals characterized the 1970s in the U.S.
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Immense economic, social as well as political upheavals characterized the 1970s in the U.S.
Little legitimate manifestations for religiously spirited groups like the Ku Klux Klan characterized the political arena. The Ku Klux Klan,
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Little legitimate manifestations for religiously spirited groups like the Ku Klux Klan characterized the political arena. The Ku Klux Klan,
formed during the 1861-1865 American Civil War, did not participate in politics apart Southern U.S.
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formed during the 1861-1865 American Civil War, did not participate in politics apart Southern U.S.
where the White Protestants became hostile towards Black Americans, Catholics and the Jews after World War I (WWI). Instead,
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where the White Protestants became hostile towards Black Americans, Catholics and the Jews after World War I (WWI). Instead,
many Christian fundamentalist groups focused on the high amorality levels in the U.S.
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many Christian fundamentalist groups focused on the high amorality levels in the U.S.
In the 1980s, Christian fundamentalists recruited more people. During this period, there were about 60 million Christian fundamentalists in the U.S.
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In the 1980s, Christian fundamentalists recruited more people. During this period, there were about 60 million Christian fundamentalists in the U.S.
This constituted about 20 percent of the entire population. Most were political.
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This constituted about 20 percent of the entire population. Most were political.
Notably, Christian supported Pat Robertson during his unsuccessful presidential campaign in 1988. In 2000, 1996 and 1992, they supported Pat Buchanan.
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Notably, Christian supported Pat Robertson during his unsuccessful presidential campaign in 1988. In 2000, 1996 and 1992, they supported Pat Buchanan.
As an influential religious reform group, Puritanism emerged in the Church of England during the 16th century. Puritanism face siege from the crown and the church.
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As an influential religious reform group, Puritanism emerged in the Church of England during the 16th century. Puritanism face siege from the crown and the church.
For this reason, it sent its offshoot in the 17th century to English colonies within the New World.
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For this reason, it sent its offshoot in the 17th century to English colonies within the New World.
This migration laid the necessary foundation for social, intellectual and religious order of the New England. As a historical phenomenon,
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This migration laid the necessary foundation for social, intellectual and religious order of the New England. As a historical phenomenon,
Puritanism lacked the exactitude that characterized the founding of the New England.
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Puritanism lacked the exactitude that characterized the founding of the New England.
Notably, Puritanism became a way of living within the world, a style that helped people respond to experiences. In addition,
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Notably, Puritanism became a way of living within the world, a style that helped people respond to experiences. In addition,
Puritanism reverberated across the American life from this period. Puritanism developed during 1530s after King Henry VIII rebutted papal authority.
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Puritanism reverberated across the American life from this period. Puritanism developed during 1530s after King Henry VIII rebutted papal authority.
He then transformed the Rome Church into the Church of England, which retained the ritual and liturgy associated with Roman Catholicism.
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He then transformed the Rome Church into the Church of England, which retained the ritual and liturgy associated with Roman Catholicism.
Rooted in English Reformation, Puritanism affected American values. Pejoratively, people referred Puritans as precisionists in 1560s.
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Rooted in English Reformation, Puritanism affected American values. Pejoratively, people referred Puritans as precisionists in 1560s.
King Edward introduced a prayer book and Queen Mary sent dissenting clergymen to exile and death. In spite of suppression and toleration,
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King Edward introduced a prayer book and Queen Mary sent dissenting clergymen to exile and death. In spite of suppression and toleration,
the Puritan continued growing. This underscored the centrality of religion in the political arena.
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the Puritan continued growing. This underscored the centrality of religion in the political arena.
Some favored the Presbyterian Church organization while others became radical. By breaking from the national congregation, Puritans had an opportunity to select their leaders.
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Some favored the Presbyterian Church organization while others became radical. By breaking from the national congregation, Puritans had an opportunity to select their leaders.
This is democracy. Individualism, elections, egalitarianism, democracy and self-determinism trace their roots to Puritanism.
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This is democracy. Individualism, elections, egalitarianism, democracy and self-determinism trace their roots to Puritanism.
By emphasizing on strict adherence to the Bible, Puritanism encouraged piety. In addition, Puritans gained strength with time. To their foes,
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By emphasizing on strict adherence to the Bible, Puritanism encouraged piety. In addition, Puritans gained strength with time. To their foes,
Puritans were hairsplitters who followed the Bible like a guide in daily activities while others saw them more of licentious hypocrites or lascivious purveyors who feigned piety.
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Puritans were hairsplitters who followed the Bible like a guide in daily activities while others saw them more of licentious hypocrites or lascivious purveyors who feigned piety.
Merchants and lawyers of London favored Puritanism. Puritans had varied enterprises across the globe. In the 1640s,
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Merchants and lawyers of London favored Puritanism. Puritans had varied enterprises across the globe. In the 1640s,
the Puritanism movement in Massachusetts had registered about 10,000 people even with land scarcity problems sheer spirit restlessness and ecclesiastical quarrelling.
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the Puritanism movement in Massachusetts had registered about 10,000 people even with land scarcity problems sheer spirit restlessness and ecclesiastical quarrelling.
They spread further to Maine, Connecticut, Rhode Island and New Hampshire. This gave rise to the emergence of American Puritanism.
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They spread further to Maine, Connecticut, Rhode Island and New Hampshire. This gave rise to the emergence of American Puritanism.
Unlike other migrations to America, Puritan migration represented migration of very many families with young unattached blokes.
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Unlike other migrations to America, Puritan migration represented migration of very many families with young unattached blokes.
Puritanism survived the Enlightenment Age that defined Americanism. Over time, American Puritanism influenced education, national character, democratic thoughts and American individualism.
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Puritanism survived the Enlightenment Age that defined Americanism. Over time, American Puritanism influenced education, national character, democratic thoughts and American individualism.
It saw Catholicism as undermining the relationship that connect individual with God.
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It saw Catholicism as undermining the relationship that connect individual with God.
Most importantly, American Puritanism saw the American society as corrupted by many foreign influences and disorder. It required purification. Puritans believed in predestination. God chooses the saved and the damned. He elects.
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Most importantly, American Puritanism saw the American society as corrupted by many foreign influences and disorder. It required purification. Puritans believed in predestination. God chooses the saved and the damned. He elects.
The congregation chooses members. It hires as well as fires ministries. This underscores the role of election. In addition, American Puritanism viewed God as a Supreme Being. Naturally, people are corrupt and sinful.
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The congregation chooses members. It hires as well as fires ministries. This underscores the role of election. In addition, American Puritanism viewed God as a Supreme Being. Naturally, people are corrupt and sinful.
Moreover, Puritanism regarded hard work as a religious responsibility. It emphasized on self-discipline and self-examination. Puritanism was both a religious conviction and a philosophy that advocated for economic determinism.
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Moreover, Puritanism regarded hard work as a religious responsibility. It emphasized on self-discipline and self-examination. Puritanism was both a religious conviction and a philosophy that advocated for economic determinism.
The pluralism concept has an array of meanings in various topics. This section will focus on religious pluralism. However, it will delve on the role of pluralism in politics.
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The pluralism concept has an array of meanings in various topics. This section will focus on religious pluralism. However, it will delve on the role of pluralism in politics.
Religious pluralism refers to a policy, strategy and/or attitude pertaining to diversity in religious beliefs within a society.
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Religious pluralism refers to a policy, strategy and/or attitude pertaining to diversity in religious beliefs within a society.
More specifically, religious pluralism connotes the worldview that appreciates the existence of many belief systems within a society. Puritans did not believe in religious diversity. Therefore, pluralism constitutes a departure from Puritanism.
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More specifically, religious pluralism connotes the worldview that appreciates the existence of many belief systems within a society. Puritans did not believe in religious diversity. Therefore, pluralism constitutes a departure from Puritanism.
Different belief systems that have mutually exclusive persuasions are deemed as equally valid. This amounts to either toleration of other religions ore even moral relativism.
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Different belief systems that have mutually exclusive persuasions are deemed as equally valid. This amounts to either toleration of other religions ore even moral relativism.
Better still, religious pluralism is predicated on the understanding that all claims by dissimilar religious represent variation of certain universal truths.
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Better still, religious pluralism is predicated on the understanding that all claims by dissimilar religious represent variation of certain universal truths.
Some people use the terms ecumenism and pluralism interchangeably to facilitate support of a particular level of improved, unity and even cooperation.
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Some people use the terms ecumenism and pluralism interchangeably to facilitate support of a particular level of improved, unity and even cooperation.
Religious pluralism facilitates harmonious coexistence amongst adherents of many religious denominations and religions.
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Religious pluralism facilitates harmonious coexistence amongst adherents of many religious denominations and religions.
Historically, many religious minorities in colonies adopted religious toleration. However, they still faced exclusion, bias and discrimination. Such religious minorities could hold neither university positions,
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Historically, many religious minorities in colonies adopted religious toleration. However, they still faced exclusion, bias and discrimination. Such religious minorities could hold neither university positions,
civil offices nor military positions. Primarily, religious toleration only eliminated religious persecution.
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civil offices nor military positions. Primarily, religious toleration only eliminated religious persecution.
With time, fortunately, colonial governments began substituting religious toleration with religious liberty within the Thirteen Colonies. As an exclusivist religion,
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With time, fortunately, colonial governments began substituting religious toleration with religious liberty within the Thirteen Colonies. As an exclusivist religion,
Puritanism taught that other religions do not teach the truth. Some Protestants factions oppose Christian fundamentalism and Roman Catholicism.
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Puritanism taught that other religions do not teach the truth. Some Protestants factions oppose Christian fundamentalism and Roman Catholicism.
This was the case before the Enlightenment. Religious pluralism solved this impasse by ensuring that no denomination or religion has special rights.
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This was the case before the Enlightenment. Religious pluralism solved this impasse by ensuring that no denomination or religion has special rights.
In addition, it treats all religions as equal. Religious pluralism characterizes post-modernism.
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In addition, it treats all religions as equal. Religious pluralism characterizes post-modernism.
Enlightenment led to a huge religious transformation, separation of religion and the state as well as religious pluralism. However,
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Enlightenment led to a huge religious transformation, separation of religion and the state as well as religious pluralism. However,
some Christian fundamentalists perceive religious pluralism as invalid and self-contradictory but maximal religious pluralism forms see religions as equal.
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some Christian fundamentalists perceive religious pluralism as invalid and self-contradictory but maximal religious pluralism forms see religions as equal.
Before Great Schism, Orthodox Christianity only recognized a single apostolic and Catholic Church. Many Protestant Christian, Episcopalians as well as Orthodox Christians still hold on religious singularity.
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Before Great Schism, Orthodox Christianity only recognized a single apostolic and Catholic Church. Many Protestant Christian, Episcopalians as well as Orthodox Christians still hold on religious singularity.
Some Christians like Christian fundamentalists only recognize believers who subscribe to certain specific fundamental doctrines.
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Some Christians like Christian fundamentalists only recognize believers who subscribe to certain specific fundamental doctrines.
Some evangelicals doubt Eastern Orthodoxy and even Roman Catholicism. They oppose religious groups such a Jehovah’s Witnesses, Mormonism as well as Christian Science.
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Some evangelicals doubt Eastern Orthodoxy and even Roman Catholicism. They oppose religious groups such a Jehovah’s Witnesses, Mormonism as well as Christian Science.
While some Christian fundamentalist groups oppose religious pluralism, they recognize political diversity.
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While some Christian fundamentalist groups oppose religious pluralism, they recognize political diversity.
In the U.S., these groups value peaceful coexistence amongst varied lifestyles, interests and norms. Political pluralism may not necessarily conservatism or liberalism but it embraces political moderation. Calvinism addresses traditional topics in Christianity theology.
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In the U.S., these groups value peaceful coexistence amongst varied lifestyles, interests and norms. Political pluralism may not necessarily conservatism or liberalism but it embraces political moderation. Calvinism addresses traditional topics in Christianity theology.
Most importantly, Calvinism emphasizes on sovereignty as well as God’s rule not only in salvation but also in also other life aspects. It also viewed the Scripture as an amalgamated whole.
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Most importantly, Calvinism emphasizes on sovereignty as well as God’s rule not only in salvation but also in also other life aspects. It also viewed the Scripture as an amalgamated whole.
In addition, Calvinism focuses on Lord’s Supper and baptism.
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In addition, Calvinism focuses on Lord’s Supper and baptism.
4.2.3 Calvinism Calvinism is a Protestantism branch that embraces the theological forms and traditions of Christian practices taught by John Calvin as well as other Reformation-epoch theologians.
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4.2.3 Calvinism Calvinism is a Protestantism branch that embraces the theological forms and traditions of Christian practices taught by John Calvin as well as other Reformation-epoch theologians.
More specifically, Calvinism represented a departure from the Roman Catholicism. However, Calvinism disagreed with Lutherans regarding worship theories and the Eucharist amongst other issues.
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More specifically, Calvinism represented a departure from the Roman Catholicism. However, Calvinism disagreed with Lutherans regarding worship theories and the Eucharist amongst other issues.
Lutherans opposed Calvinism. In addition, Calvinism as a concept may be misleading due to the religious traditions it denotes.
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Lutherans opposed Calvinism. In addition, Calvinism as a concept may be misleading due to the religious traditions it denotes.
The famous Arminian Controversy pitted the Calvinists against the Arminians based on their beliefs. Religious churches can exercise different ecclesiastical polities.
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The famous Arminian Controversy pitted the Calvinists against the Arminians based on their beliefs. Religious churches can exercise different ecclesiastical polities.
Some may be Episcopalian, Congregationalist or even Presbyterian. In addition, Calvinism emphasizes on traditional topics associated with Christian theology,
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Some may be Episcopalian, Congregationalist or even Presbyterian. In addition, Calvinism emphasizes on traditional topics associated with Christian theology,
God’s rules and sovereignty not only in salvation but also in other life aspects.
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God’s rules and sovereignty not only in salvation but also in other life aspects.
Moreover, Calvinism also perceives the Scripture as an amalgamated whole that culminated to covenantal theology. The Lord’s Supper and baptism depict the covenant.
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Moreover, Calvinism also perceives the Scripture as an amalgamated whole that culminated to covenantal theology. The Lord’s Supper and baptism depict the covenant.
Like Puritanism, Calvinism affirmed the particular election doctrine that stipulates that God choose people for salvation.
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Like Puritanism, Calvinism affirmed the particular election doctrine that stipulates that God choose people for salvation.
John Calvin’s participated in missionary work in France. His reform program reached over to French-speaking provinces in Netherlands. The Electoral Palatinate adopted Calvinism under Frederick III.
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John Calvin’s participated in missionary work in France. His reform program reached over to French-speaking provinces in Netherlands. The Electoral Palatinate adopted Calvinism under Frederick III.
During English Civil War, Calvinistic Puritans formulated the Westminster Confession.
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During English Civil War, Calvinistic Puritans formulated the Westminster Confession.
The Calvinism movement spread to many parts in the world such as including Korea, Africa and America. This way, Calvinism became a global movement. Many settlers in New England and Mid-Atlantic embraced Calvinism.
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The Calvinism movement spread to many parts in the world such as including Korea, Africa and America. This way, Calvinism became a global movement. Many settlers in New England and Mid-Atlantic embraced Calvinism.
As a theological system, Calvinists believed God’s self-revelation through Jesus Christ who mediates between people and God.
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As a theological system, Calvinists believed God’s self-revelation through Jesus Christ who mediates between people and God. God reveals himself to His people through providence and creation as well as redemption.
To some extent, Calvinism embraces very many salient features of Christian Fundamentalism. Like Puritanism, Calvinism subscribes to the unconditional election doctrine. God chooses people for salvation from eternity. Calvinism also believes that human beings have a free will.
Therefore, they can make choices. Perhaps, this explains the activeness of Calvinists in the American political arena. While Arminianism believes in conditional election, Calvinism and Lutheranism believe in unconditional election. In addition, Calvinism believes that conversion is Monergistic and irresistible.
Calvinism focuses on freedom in society and politics. The Netherlands and England became the freest nation in Europe under Calvinism. This became liberal to America too. The U.S. adopted pluralism. This increased the influence of Calvinism as a Christian fundamentalist doctrine encouraged people to choose what or who they want.
Consequently, Calvinism encouraged liberalism within the Biblical inherency framework. People have more freedom to elect their leaders. Perhaps this gave the Calvinists the impetus to participate in American politics.
Expressed through ceremonies, symbols and public rituals, civil religion constitutes the implied religious values in a country. Civil religion stands beyond churches but incorporates church ceremonies and church officials. A non-sectarian religious faith exists in the U.S.
with symbols from the national history. Civil religion fosters cultural and social integration as well as social cohesion. Civil religion in the U.S. focuses upon non-denominational religious subjects. The Declaration of Independence, the Bill of Rights and the Constitution constitutes the major cornerstones of civil religion.
In addition, Americans embraces civil religion that focuses on particular fundamental values, rituals, beliefs and holidays. To martyrs like Abraham Lincoln and soldiers who died during the Civil War, the U.S.
awards semi-religious honours. Notably, rhetoric on civil religion played an important role during the Civil Rights Movement, WWII as well as the September 11, 2001 attacks. Civil religion opposes non-conformist groups and ideas.
Most importantly, civil religion facilitates integration. In addition, civil religion in the U.S. dilutes the hatred between liberals and Christian fundamentalist groups in American politics. There exists no antagonism between democracy and Christian fundamentalism in the U.S where civil religion bulwarks against materialism as well as individualism that breed tyranny and even atheism.
In the U.S., the perception of civil religion as a common faith bolsters nationalism and democratic faith. Americans hold Americanism with some quasi-religious enthusiasm and vehemence. Some people view Americanism as the civil religion.
However, anecdotal evidence demonstrates that civil religion is a distinctive cultural phenomenon in the U.S., separate from denominational religion and American politics. Civil religion focuses on certain religious beliefs. First, it considers the U.S.
as a country chosen by God. The American President derives his authority from God. Furthermore, civil religion holds that social justice can never arise from laws but religion. Ordinarily, Americans can know God through their experiences.
To solidify this belief, July Fourth is considered a patriotic holiday. Research indicates that American citizens subscribe to civil religion. However, the level decreases amongst religious liberals, political liberals and college graduates.
Catholics, Protestants and Christian fundamentalists subscribe to civil religion too. Pentecostals, the Mormons and the Adventists have high civil religiosity unlike Unitarians, Jews as well as those without religious preferences. Civil religion has a big role in people’s choice of policy positions and political candidates.
In fact, civil religion precedes political party affiliations in American politics. Historical evidence demonstrates that the American Revolution forms the civil religion foundation. Moreover, Presidents play the leadership role in civil religion.
Patriotism shapes civil religion. The civil religion in the U.S. causes political friction pitting Europe and the U.S. Arguably, civil religion in America promote social cohesion and alleviates political apathy. This culminates to an increased political participation by the citizenry on political matters, policy decisions and elections.
In addition, Christian fundamentalists take advantage of civil religion to whip emotions and gain support in the American political arena. 4.2.5 Formation of Christian Fundamentalist Groups Christian right describe the rightwing Christian political splinter groups.
These factions support policies that advocate for social conservatism. Principally, Christian conservatives apply Christian teachings to public policies and politics by emphasizing on their values. Towards this end, Christian rights influence public policies and legal provisions.
As an informal movement, Catholics and evangelical Protestants constitute the Christian right. However, the Mormons, mainline Protestants and the Jews give Christian right additional support. In retrospect, Christian right traces its roots to the American politics of 1940s.
Their influences in American politics reverberate from 1970s. Christian right draws its immense influence from social activism at the grassroots level. The movement advocates on serious social issues. This enables the movement to coalesce the electorates around social issues.
Christian right focus on sexual education, abortion, obscenity, pornography, school prayer and homosexuality issues. Evangelicals form the major constituency of Christian right. American politicians cannot afford to ignore this constituency. Members of this movement participate in electoral work to guarantee the election of their candidates.
Rooted in fundamentalist and evangelical teachings, the movement does not compensate the members for their devotion. On the other hand, the African-American/black church refers to the Christian churches, which minister mostly to African-American congregations within the U.S.
Historically, free blacks formed black churches prior to 1800. After abolishment of slavery, free blacks went ahead and established separate churches. This created communities with a cultural distinction based on African traditions.
In addition, segregationist attitudes prevented the blacks from going to the same churches with the whites. With time, black church has formed an important component in provision of political and spiritual leaders, particularly after segregationist attitudes declined due to emancipation.
Notably, black churches took a leading role during the American Civil Rights Movement. In addition, black churches support African-Americans. These churches focuses on certain social issues like racism, poverty, racism, healthcare reforms, prison ministries as well as drug abuse.
Most surveys show that many blacks vote Democratic candidates during elections. They support socially conservative policies. For instance, Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT) and same-sex marriages cause activism in certain black churches.
However, most black Protestants oppose this stand. Black churches have immense influence on American politics. Mormons relate to the cultural and religion group associated with Mormonism. Mormons emphasize on communality, chastity and family-oriented values.
In addition, they spend huge resources and time to serve in church. Young Mormons serve a fulltime proselytizing mission. Mormons adhere to a certain health code, which disdain tobacco, alcoholic beverages, tea, coffee as well as other related addictive substances.
Mormons consider themselves as Christian fundamentalists. However, their beliefs vary from those of ordinary Christianity. Mormons consider the Bible as a Holy Book. However, they have other Scriptural books. There exist Latter-day Saints, fundamentalist Mormons, liberal Mormons and cultural Mormons as sub-groups in Mormonism.
Mormons support liberals on certain political and social issues such as women’s rights and civil rights. Mormons are more politically conservative in comparison to other American religious groups. Therefore, Mormonism as a Christian fundamentalist group equally plays an instrumental role in determining how its members vote during elections in the U.S.
4.2 Influences on Politics The creation of the Christian Coalition organization in 1989 brought every conservative charismatic, Christian fundamentalists as well as neo-evangelicals together. After failing in the 1988 Presidential elections, Pat Robertson, a political commentator-cum-religious broadcaster utilized his remaining campaign wherewithal to create an organization that could help in voter mobilization.
Robertson began by accumulating mailing lists with the intent of reaching out to many conservative Christians who had interest in politics. He founders went ahead and set 49 state chapters. Upon rejection of the application to become a charitable organization, the Texas chapter changed its name to Christian Coalition of America in order to begin nationwide campaigns.
The organization became influential during the rule of President George H.W. Bush. It attracted many Republicans. The organization began distributing independent voter guides to conservative Christians in various churches. The organization became a tax-exempt and an influential 501(c) (4) organization in America in 2005.
Today, the organization continues to wield immense influence in the American politics. President George W. Bush, a Methodist who became a staunch and born-again Christian in his early 40s, is considered an overt religious leader.
Bush claimed reading the Bible every day. His ideology of Christian right and personal beliefs made him congenial. This made him gain huge political support within Middle America. Bush believed in Christian fundamentalism.
This made him appear as overly decisive. However, critics point out that this negatively affected his policies. Saul Friedman, a former reported at the White House, argued that Bush allowed his religion to determine policies.
His supporters laud his single-mindedness. Friedman note that the administration of George Bush relied on Christian fundamentalism in determining the domestic as well as foreign policies. Bush claimed that God chose him to lead America towards the Rapture.
This made him forget the essence of social reforms. Critics also argue that Bush had an unconditional support towards Israel. He could utilize the Jewish End-Time warriors in fulfilling his vision.
The American tacit approval allowed Israelis to bomb guiltless Lebanese civilians under his administration. Some scholars see his administration as not fully committed to Christian fundamentalism. Perhaps, the administration argued that Jesus Christ could not return lest the Jews repossess the Holy Land as enshrined in the Biblical prophecies.
George W. Bush failed to put sufficient pressure on Israel like Ronald Reagan and George H.W. Bush (his father) did. Bush claimed that he was accomplishing God’s mission by invading both Iraq and Afghanistan.
His religious enthusiasm was manifested during the Palestinian-Israeli Summit in Sharm el-Sheikh resort, Egypt, four months prior to American-led invasion in 2003 of Iraq. Bush argued that Abu Musab al-Zarqawi and Bin Laden led the al-Qaeda in Iraq.
His foreign policies towards the Middle East demonstrated his single-mindedness. Together with Tony Blair, Bush led the offensive mission towards alleviating radical Islamism. After sending his troops to Iraq, Bush gave an inspirational message every morning from a sermon book.
Bush incorporated his beliefs and faith in every life aspect. This paints Bush as a Christian fundamentalist. As a Christian fundamentalist, Bush looked at complex issues in a simplistic manner, a battle pitting evil against good.
His conviction was that Islamic militants as well as other Muslims opposed America. He relied on military bombardment to conquer congenital non-Christian barbarity. Protecting Free states against terror elements was America’s divine duty.
This underscores his apocalyptic view of the world. After the September 11 attacks, George Bush reiterated to the need to stamp out radical ideologies characterized by unalterable objectives from the U.S.
Notably, Islamic fundamentalism rejects modernism and western values. Perhaps this is what culminated to the 2001 terrorist attacks of the World Trade Center (WTC) in New York. Evidence show that the belligerent Islamic fundamentalists associated with Bin Laden spearheaded the September 11 attacks.
After the attacks, Bush launched consecutive offensive missions in Iraq and Afghanistan. According to Harris (2201), Pat Robertson together with Jerry Falwell blamed overly liberal and lax societal norms for the attack.
At home, most Americans suffered due to the trauma they experienced. These Christian fundamentalists seem to blame misfortunes of wayward behaviour. Religion played an important role in enabling them deal with such life-changing and traumatic events.
Through conservational strategies, people overcame the trauma in spite of the painful memories. This is religious coping. After the attack, most countries including the U.S. tightened their anti-terrorism legislations. Today, the foreign policy of the American government focuses upon militant nationalism.
The Tea Party in the U.S. emphasizes on Christian fundamentalism. For instance, the party opposes President Obama, whom they claim is anti-Christ. In addition, the party takes a conservative stance on many issues.
Empirical data show that about 10 percent of Americans associate with the party. In addition, a poll by NBC News together with the Wall Street Journal showed that 35 percent of possible voters had a political affiliation on the Tea Party.
The Tea Party argues that America requires a Christian president. However, analyses terms Obama as a Christian. However, in The Audacity of Hope book, Obama claims that he lacked a religious upbringing.
He reports that he had non-religious parents. In addition, Obama reports that he worked in many black churches in his 20s where he learned to appreciate the role of the church in spurring social change.
The party opposes the establishment of a secular and hyper-consumerist community where global capitalism invests in to the detriment of Christian fundamentalism. By emphasizing on Biblical literalism, Christian fundamentalists focus on the Judeo-Christian Bible, which has many references on an aggressive and angry God as well as war.
This explains the Tea Party and Republicans’ inclination towards war. This motivates political activity within the light of Christian fundamentalism. Various lobby groups push for Christian fundamentalism in the U.S. These lobby groups promote an authoritarian and strict Christianity version.
These lobby groups play an important role in the U.S. politics. Lobby groups influence American politics by championing on Christian home schooling to promote education on spirituality. For instance, the Hobby Lobby urges people to submit to leadership.
Formed by Bill Gothard, critics associate Hobby Lobby with the Christian Reconstruction movement that emphasized on Christian ultra-fundamentalist policies to promote theocracy. Hobby Lobby supported conservative politicians such as Sarah Palin and Mike Huckabee.
In his American Theocracy book, Kevin Phillips, a political scientist, argues that the Republicans have made the party as vehicle for eventual erosion of the state-church separation and policymaking. Phillips argues that 55% of the votes that George Bush received in 2004 were from people who believed in an Armageddon as well as the invasion of Iraq by the U.S.
During the administration of George Bush, theological influence affected the country’s foreign policy according to Phillips. Bush’s inclination towards Christian fundamentalism is demonstrated by contrasting President Obama’s policies on homosexuality, LGBTs, sexual education and abortion with those of George Bush.
Today, America is very open to liberal ideas. The government gives premium to individual privacy and religious pluralism. Further, this serves as a contrast between Democrats and Republicans. Critics argue Christian fundamentalism has culminated to a democracy breakdown in the U.S.
Christian fundamentalism focuses on a wholly dissimilar ideological and cultural background that regard shared values irrelevant. In addition, Christian fundamentalists teach its own believers to live according to basic Biblical teachings in the world.
Put differently, the world should not conform to secularism. Instead, they should strive to change the globe. Perhaps the increased participation of Christian fundamentalists in American politics personifies the need to inject positive change in the political arena.
However, Christian fundamentalists acknowledge that every American should be free to choose what pleases them. Everyone has an entitlement to hold a personal opinion, either valid or otherwise. Moreover, Christian fundamentalists believe that Satan utilizes rationality to cheat the human mind.
Notably, they do not pursue happiness as a motivation. Contrariwise, they emphasize on the need to follow God’s will by submitting to Jesus Christ. As earlier mentioned, George Bush considered the attack on Iraq and Afghanistan as being in tandem with God’s will.
Understanding these issues is important because most people associate Christian fundamentalism with negative connotations. Their values and beliefs are poorly understood. 5.0 Conclusion This research paper has shown that Christian fundamentalist groups react to the immense internal pressures that characterize theological modernity or what some people call theological liberalism.
However, there exist many external pressures such as evolution, cultural secularism and science on evangelical community during the 19th and 20th centuries. Christian fundamentalist groups argue that modernism dilutes fundamental Christian message by emphasizing on personal chastity, holiness and literal biblical motivation as demonstrated in this research paper.
This research paper has enumerated that modern Christian fundamentalism and American politics strives to blend religion and politics. The Conservatives and Republicans favor fundamentalist viewpoints. However, certain Christian fundamentalists opposing democracy threaten the rollback the gains made.
Also demonstrated in this research paper is the fact that prior to 1970s, Christian fundamentalists did not take an active role in American politics. Most Christian fundamentalists focus on Biblical teachings in decision-making processes.
The researcher paper has traced the emergence of Christian fundamentalists in the U.S. and their increasing role in American politics. By providing a general definition of Christian fundamentalism, the paper has outlined its guiding principles.
Further, the research paper has traced the historical background of fundamentalism. In addition, the paper has given premium to the influence of the U.S.-American religious Christian fundamentalist groups on the U.S.
politics. More specifically, the research paper has expounded on the role of these groups using a historical method where the history of Christian fundamentalism in the U.S. has been traced. Towards this end, the research paper has shed some light on Puritanism, pluralism, Calvinism and civil religion in the U.S.
Regarding pluralism, the research paper has focused on religious pluralism and has mentioned political pluralism. Lastly, the paper has delved into Christian Coalition in relation to Christian fundamentalism. Furthermore, President George Bush has been shown as a Christian fundamentalist owing to his political, social as well as foreign policies.
He has been contrasted with President Obama. In addition, the paper examines the Republicans, Democrats and the Tea Party. The research paper also mentions lobby groups such as the Hobby Lobby, Christian rights, Mormons and black church to illuminate the role of Christian fundamentalism in American politics.

Author: Barry Holmes