Islam And French Colonial Rule In West Africa History Essay

Following the European victory of Africa there was a existing expansion in twain Muslim and Christian societies. Though Christianity was perceived by some as a machine of colonialism and scontinually of a European civilising sidearm, presentation Islam was on the other laborer viewed as anti-colonial, cogitation a rottennessise of hindrance rather than collaboration. Islam tendered a judgment of commonwealth during colonial directment when the continent was experiencing a duration of speedy qualify and mobility. F admin sought to planatically husband the habit of Islam in their colonies in a fashion of which they could convey it into alignment with the F perspective of modernity and convey-abextinguished Islam assist as a ‘bulwark’ guide the specify’s warrant. At selfselfsame duration officials’ half heartened efforts compulsion, loose labour money cropping projects and tyrannical capacity by poorly manifestationful and subordinatefunded admin brought showy and sudden qualifys in how comm. were org and how men-folks silent their position in soc. West African Muslims season creatively on centuries of Islamic view and soc experimentation to artifice innovating identities and comm. extinguished of the qualifys brought by F. Exemplar was how escort of Yacouba Sylla gave a innovating significance to the smoothness and undomesticated provisions that colonial politicians spoke abextinguished such as immunity, rottenness and modernisation. They made them mediate themes in a mystical Sufi habit that observeed slight affect the enlightenment-inveterate catholic republicanism guides hoped to engender or affect reformist Islam promoted by modernisers elsewhere. (Hanretta 2009, 3)

The provisions gift and collaboration are invariably manifestationd by historians to picture the connection betwixt Islam and French colonial directment in West Africa. In Islam and Social Qualify in French West Africa, Hanretta specifys that in establishs affect Senegal, Mauritiana and Mali, when auspicious in representing their account of Islam as entity harmonious with the dictates of colonial directment, they were ardent way to metropolitan capacity to manifestation despite other godly guides guide clients and living. This connection could be seen as a collaboration of media betwixt the colonisers and the Muslim colonised, to sustain command and harmony (Hanretta 2009, 138-139). Another oral Islamic commonwealth were the Sufi Brotherhoods, in severicular the Tijaniyya in Senegal, Mali and Guinea, who splinter into branches and networks that accept rationalistic origin networks. Of the Tijani schoolmans there were who actively incongruous French colonial directment in the 19th seniority, by the 20th seniority frequent became extinguishedspoken collaborators of the colonial directment (Heck 2007, 65). Heck and Hanretta announcement Seydou Nourou Taal, grandson to al-Hajj Umar Taal, who contributed to and organised frequent Tijani jihad movements, whilst Seydou Nourou became individual of France’s first Muslim intermediaries. When colonial encroachment began, frequent Muslim guides true European directment who agreed to concede them poor guide aggravate their communities; this was what scontinually of what the Europeans view was an efficient and common plan of directance (Hanretta 2009, 60). These are exemplars of when Muslim guides and communities chose to promote with the colonial regime and shows that areas subordinate Islamic directment unwavering to decide French colonial directment and in some severs of West Africa, Muslim guides obtained a harmonyful connection betwixt the couple.

Brenner observes at the contingency of Agibu where the motivating ideology guide al-Hajj Umar was reformist Islam, which incongruous the ‘civilising sidearm’ of the French colonial ideology. The connection betwixt Islam and colonial French directment is built on clashing ideologies and contest. Brenner specifys that betwixt the couple cosmos-unity wars there was a confrontation betwixt Tijani Sufism and French Islamic device, and the greater French design with deference to Islam was subsistence of gregarious stoppage. The French had realised by the assist decade of the 20th seniority that their first browbeating to colonial directment in West Africa was Islam becamanifestation it had the implicit to connect abundant collection of unity to rottennessise hindrance despite European authority. The connection accordingly could be individual of contesting present, where the French habituated to establish directment unarranged Muslims who did referefficient attributefficient attributefficient attributefficient shortness to be directmentd by non-Muslims. The French were permanent, they promulgated a innovating “natural device” in 1909 where Guide General William Ponty open concerns that Muslims shouldn’t direct non-Muslims and in 1911 it was decreed that continuallyy functional communication, as polite as judgements by natural courts, should be written in French, rather than Arabic. These attempts to prohibit the ramify of Islam failed at-developed it showed that he shortnessed French colonial directment to monopolise the politics of Agibu and this meant reducing Islamic wave. This was resembling to French Soudan where colonial soldierly officials aimed to boundary conaccount to Islam (Mann 2003, 264). At-last, Islam grew more speedyly than continually, seemly the dominant holiness of marketefficient centres in Soudan, where innovating arrivals that came to inquire effect in these towns converted to Islam. This chapter of Agibu’s truth should be pictured as ‘Authority and the French Challenge to Islam’ (Brenner 1984, 32-38). French Colonial directment in Agibu posed a browbeating to Islamic values and Islam posed a browbeating to colonial directment, creating a connection of contest.

Robinson’s exposition of the connection betwixt Islam and French colonial role in Senegal is a cheerful exemplar of twain contest and collaboration. The French weren’t efficient to decide directment amid Muslim societies, they build it obscure to arrange and through habit and gauge and misprocure they did husband to exert a rottennessise of restrainteign directment aggravate the societies. Their intentions rearwards this rottennessise of guide was to slice French costs, whereby they manifestationd the national population to expand peanuts, steadfast taxes and in constitution, sustain command. This at-developed caused frequent of the Muslims to resist colonial chiefs and persuaded them to behove marabouts that although hapless their gregarious capacitys they did succor their escort to steadfast tithes barring granted them as-polite with an education and thrift as polite as self-assertion. The French recognised the weight of marabouts in sustaining command and brought object Amadu Bamba (Muslim schoolman and Sufi guide) from his relegate who they had previously prisoner of plotting to wage a soldierly jihad despite the French (Heck 2007, 61-62). This shows collaboration betwixt the colonial French and Bamba. They believed that he would aid to stabilise the colonial husbanding and gregarious command, he repayed realising that French colonial directment would remain and that they had barring no dainty to decide (Robinson 2004, 182-196). After Mamba died the Murids became the dominant and economic guidece in the peanut basin and true colonial directment (Searing 2002, 128-130). In his tome Sufism and Politics Heck goes on to judge that Bamba’s reunyielding from relegate referefficient attributefficient attributefficient attributefficient existing pacified kinsmen betwixt his escort and the French colonial plan barring it rottennesseloped a exemplar of subordinatestanding and proved to be frameful guide twain sides (Heck 2007, 63). Here the connection began by the French arrangeing to prevalent aggravate Muslim societies and uniformtually exploiting them to expand peanuts and steadfast taxes to slice directment costs. This fully crusty environing when the French had to inquire aid from Bamba and other marabouts to sustain command and accordingly combine guideces with Muslim guides and societies, thus guideth displaying a connection of compose.

It is momentous to be sensible of what antecedent French Islamic device was in colonial Africa in command to prove the connection betwixt Islam and French colonial directment in West Africa. The presumptions made by French colonialists of Islam and Africans had implications on their repossession towards Muslim guides and their subjects. Hanretta specifys that there is no vacillate that the beliefs the French held abextinguished Islam, Africans and the constitution of the colonial sidearm deeply waved the reactions of the officials to Yacouba Sylla and his escort. Through a effecting, modification compose, Muslim guides were tolerated and uniform patronised, barring as-polite carefully scrutinised. A curbtune of the possession charmed by the French in West Africa was inveterate on experiences they had encountered in Algeria, guide exemplar the proposal that Muslim networks, severicularly Sufi tariqas could be manifestationd as intermediaries granted they were smevery and severicularised, smevery abundance referefficient attributefficient attributefficient attributefficient to frame abundance capacity to contobject with regional plans and African abundance to shield themselves from North African and Middle Eastern waves. Harrison agrees that if we are to confront a grave and sustained rottennesselopment of French device towards Islam it is requisite to observe north to Algeria where a specific consensus emerged at the object of the 19th seniority (Harrison 1988, 15-27). French device in the 1920s and 1930s crusty on the difference betwixt “good” and “bad” tariqas, during this duration a the “bad” tariqa was the Hamawaiyyah and naturally uniformly Yacouba became seen as a “Hamallist” rector the administrator’s design was to detail whether him and his escort shared the tendencies of this command (Hanretta 2009, 127-128). The connection betwixt Islam and French colonial directment in West Africa could be characterised by a fixed of corrections the French were making from the mistakes they had made in North Africa.

Judgment of intercommunity was seen with the leftist Popular Front directment in France and Yacouba. It is said that although they were solely in capacity guide couple decades, their reformist homogeneousity abroad had developed effects on French West African Device. In 1936 the Popular Front directment aided boost Yacouba’s efforts to organise his whole commonwealth into a one labour pool. The directment as-polite sought to mobject the rift betwixt eleven-beads and twelve-beads to convey Hamawis subordinate a more potent guide. The most momentous was the conclude of Seydou Nouro Tal to Nioro, he was grandson to the mind of the capacityful twelve-bead Tal origin who were opponents of the Hamawiyyah. He was released to reunite with Shaykh Hamallah (fosubordinate of Hamawiyyah) and essentially tender him and his escort minimal shieldion guide their subsidearm to Seydou Nourou (administration’s clarified guide of West Africa’s Muslim population). Thereby the Popular Front were efficient to qualify the effigy of the Hamawiyyah from entity seen as a scontinually of a abundantr ‘politique musulmane’ to entity integrated into France’s clerical neteffect of Muslim clients (Hanretta 2009, 95-96). De Coppet’s situation to Sheikh Hamallah portrayed him as tender and catholicly minded, Harrison in France and Islam in West Africa suggests that the commencement guide his Muslim device in French West Africa came from himself and the collision Islam had on him in Mauritania (Harrison 1988, 193). In Fetishizing Holiness Mann speaks of how Cardaire, a soldierly colonial official was cowardly of the expandth of Saudi-sponsored Wahhabism as a browbeating to French Africa, serving as guide of Soudan’s Bureau of Muslim affairs he supervised the specify-sponsored Hajj, where he accompanied pilgrims to the Hijaz. The indubitablety that the specify sponsored unity to go on pilgreffigy shows that they were indulgent and didn’t constrain them from constant their godly habits (Mann 2003, 270).

Gift didn’t procure establish betwixt Muslims and a complete colonial regime barring rather was a remainder of limited and national constellations of capacity in which godly elites and administrators shared resembling designs. Muslim entrepreneurs efficient to procure utility of the contest amid functional depictions of Islam. In areas where the specify’s guide of godly institutions was cogent, French officials were efficient to wave a manner of creating an environment where indubitable rottennessises of Islam and indubitable networks of Muslim guideships and indubitable fashions of responding to French nearness would abound. An momentous material Muslim elites could inquire to guide was the product of attainments abextinguished African Islam, attainments that in depend directed the activities of the colonial specify. It seems almost as if the connection was defined by them using each other’s media despite them and then realising how they would abound and what methods they would manifestation to frame capacity and changing it, to subserve them (Hanretta 2009, 138-139).