Leadership Theory HOMEWORK

Leadership Theory Fill out the sections below with your selected leadership theories (Behavior, Situational, Contemporary Substitutes, Trait theories ) Leadership Theory #1: Behavior Theory Explanation: This theory proposes the need for a good leader to have a strong personality and general self confidence as how a leader behaves influences the success of their leadership. Unlike the trait theory, it prioritizes the need for admirable behavior over physical and social characteristics (Avolio, Walumbwa, & Weber, 2009). This is a traditional theory that arose in the 1940s – 1950s, which allowed for people with the right conditioning rather than only the right traits to be leaders.
Example of use in the real-world: Behavior leadership is evidident in the case of priests who influence their followers to be generous with the needy by acting compassionately towards the needy themselves. A manager who motivates his employees to arrive early by scolding them when they arrive late illustrates the behavior theory of leadership.
Leadership Theory #2: Situational Theory Explanation: This theory suggests that there are different characteristics of leadership that match the different situations; therefore, no one leader is optimally suited to face every situation as they cannot possess all the necessary characteristics. This theory is also referred to as contingency theory as it is often the consequence of a different but relevant occurrence. Effective leadership is supposedly contigent on factors other than the individual leader. This theory somewhat extends the trait theory (Avolio, Walumbwa, & Weber, 2009).
Example of use in the real-world: In the case of a medical situation, medical professions such as doctors in the vicinity are given temporary leadership positions as they are best-suited to deal with such a situation.
Leadership Theory #3: Contemporary Theories Explanation: They include transformational and transactional leadership. Transformational leadership suggests that the interpersonal skills of leaders can lead to increased motivation of follows. In transactional leadership, a reward or punishment is used as a tool for motivating followers (Avolio, Walumbwa, & Weber, 2009).
Example of use in the real-world: A manager who offers a pay rise for the best perfoming employee is a transactional leader. Transformational leadership can be evidenced by an individual who encourages people to contribute to his charity to help the poor.
Leadership Theory #4: Substitutes for Leadership Theory Explanation: This theory suggests that situational factors either promote, neutralize, or substitute for leader behaviors. Substitutes refer to the variables that could reduce reliance of followers on a leader or ultimately render such leadership unnecessary. Examples of substitutes constitute the characteristics of the organization, the followers, and the tasks(Avolio, Walumbwa, & Weber, 2009). Measurement criteria such as the Likert scale can be used to determine leadership substitutes.
Example of use in the real-world: Autonomous work groups are good examples of substitutes for leadership as evidenced in numerous contemporary technology companies that advocate for horizontal rather than vertical organization management systems.
Leadership Theory #5: Trait Theory Explanation: According to this theory, the traits that an individual possesses, such as intelligence will cause them to arise as leaders in particular situations or in undertaking particular tasks. Therefore a person who is either born or has learned particular qualities is in the best position to become a leader. This theory focuses on the physical, social, and mental characteristics that leaders possess (Avolio, Walumbwa, & Weber, 2009)..
Example of use in the real-world: In determining the leader of a scientific project at an organization traits such as the level of intelligence and ingenuity are considered. Traits are also relevant in selecting actors and musicians for lead roles in plays and films as well as in selecting politicians.