Safety and Environmental Risk and Reliability Modeling Process for Sustainable Inland Water Transportation System

The vast resources of the world’s oceans need to be fully utilized to benefit human activi-ties in a sustainable manner. The maritime industry has made use of the ocean in a very responsible way, but inland water resources have been much more underutilized and un-der-maintained, especially for transportation. In an age so dire to find ways to mitigate the challenge of climate change and its associ-ated impacts, recent research has indicated that inland water transportation represents the cleanest mode of transportation. This indicates the potential for an increase in us-age of inland waterways for transportation. The use of inland water transportation is forecast to rise because of the potential for short sea shipping, expanding deep-sea opera-tions, and alternative mitigation options for climate change. Coastal water transporta-tion is associated with low probability, high consequence accidents, which makes reliabil-ity requirements for the design and operation for safety and environmental protection very necessary. Collision represents the largest percentage of accident risk scenarios among water transportation risk factors. This paper discusses recent work in risk and reliability-based design, and safe and efficient vessel operation in coastal waters. This includes systems based approach that covers proac-tive risk as well as holistic, multiple-criteria assessment of waterways variables required to develop mitigation options and decision support for preventive, protective and con-trol measures for various collision accident scenarios within inland waterways.Keywords: Inland transportation, accidents, risk as-sessment, vessel safety, collisions, climate change, marine pollution, navigation*Corresponding author: Tel: 60-9-668-3697; Fax: 60-9-668-3193; email: o.sulaiman@umt.edu.my145-173 pp MB_37(Kader)2.indd 1452/19/2010 11:04:20 AM
146 SulaIman et al.Journal of marine Environmental Engineering1.0 IntroductIonmarine transportation services provide substantial support to various human activi-ties its importance has long been recognized. ImO cross boundary activities in maritime regulation contain lessons learned that could be a model for the quest for today’s environ-mental global regulatory bodies to meet cur-rent environmental challenges and advance-ment of human civilization (SOlaS, 2004; Cahill R.a., 1983; Cooke, R.m. 1997). most ImO regulatory works are not mandatory for coastal transportation. Except implemen-tation issues that are directed through flag states and port state control. The clear cut ad-vantage of inland water transportation system (IWTS) over other modes of transportation, short sea service and evolving deep sea activi-ties are being driven by recent environmental problems and dialogues over alternative re-newable ways of doing things. The criticality of transportation operations within the coast-line and the prohibitive nature of the occur-rence of accidents due to high consequence and losses have equally made it imperative and necessary to design sustainable, efficient and reliable coastal transportation systems. This include consideration for holistic char-acteristics that of environmental aspects of navigation channel, vessels and other water resources issues since a sustainable inland water system cannot stand alone. Waterway accidents fall under the scenarios of collision, fire and explosion, flooding, and grounding (Bottelberghs P.H., 1995; murphy, D.m. & m.E. Paté-Cornell, 1996). Collision is caused by (see figure 1):loss of propulsion.i) loss of navigation system.ii) other accident from the ship or waterways.iii) This paper discusses risk and reliability model for the assessment and analysis of collision acci-dent scenarios leading to design for the preven-tion, control of collisions and protection of the environment. The paper also discuss elements of the process that address requirement to op-timize design, existing practice, and facilitate decision support for policy accommodation for evolving coastal transportation regimes.2.0 rIsk and relIabIlIty modellIng requIrementIn order to build reliable inland water transportation system, it is important to understand the need analysis through ex-amination of the components of system functionality capability and standards re-quirement. These include major require-ments and classification of coastal water transportation system. also important is functionality capability like channel, ves-sel, terminal, and other support systems. Environmental risk as well as ageing factors related to design, operation, construction, maintenance, economic, social, and disposal requirement for sustainable marine system need to be critically analysed. Risk identifica-tion work should be followed by risk analysis that include risk ranking, limit acceptability and generation of best options towards de-FIGuRE 1Waterways risk by accident categories [11].145-173 pp MB_37(Kader)2.indd 1462/19/2010 11:04:21 AM