The Relations Between Money Politics Corruption Politics Essay

Politics, money, and power are three words that are so hard to be separated. Actually, this is really proper, because these three things are really important and necessary to reach desire and the certain purpose. To achieved the power is needed a political strategy and good financial condition, so the power can be achieved. However, the current issues in Indonesia is an indication of the number of ways that deviate from the noble values ​​that already exist from earlier to get the power. [1] 

See the phenomenon that often happens in Indonesia, corruption is often carried out by state officials, rampant drug trafficking and sale by certain parties who have their own interests, but to get away from the bondage of the law, cases affecting both government officials in central government and in the regions, in the case of game money candidate the election. create a new paradigm in this life, there is what is really happening in this country? why does every crime can be passed off without punishment. Existing problems always seem to disappear in retreat over time and in the end none of the cases were resolved.

By looking at the phenomenon arises various speculations and perspectives of every Indonesian citizen who witnessed it. Whether the elements that make this possible? If there is no justice in this country legally? What the factors are causing chaos in the country?

The cases of corruption that have long been a very interesting news attention of Indonesia is a case of corruption against Nazaruddin and Gayus Tambunan. Ironically they can roam at will after rob people of Indonesia. Then, with a case of election for government officials indicated money politics. so, there is again a question, “whether the money has power over all cases for this?” whether the money has shifted the political system in this country? whether legal officials can be subject to money? This phenomena can be called as money politics.

Therefore, the authors try to discuss about is there any indication that money is the real power in Indonesia. Because, at the number of irregularities that exist in any cases in Indonesia, both corruption through elections or officials government.

Problems

Identification Problem

Power in Indonesia has been polluted and allegedly indicated the presence of “play money” in various aspects of life in Indonesia, both in political and other legal cases.

This further strengthened by the number of legal cases involving state officials involved in corruption cases however, the case is difficult to be done well. The case seemed to be delayed, and the longer disappear as if nothing happened. Then, with the cases of money politics by some government officials when they are about to undertake a general election, the money they use politics to win elections. Cases of corruption committed by Nazaruddin and Gayus Tambunan at the center of media and event information is quite shocking the people of Indonesia.

Cases of corruption committed by Gayus Tambunan tax evasion is a huge amount, but the case was not properly investigated, as if the case was postponed continuously.

In view of these conditions are factors which make so many suspected cases of corruption and money politics were given prison sentences for only 15 years in prison? Is it because the suspect has the money and power so that the law can be bought with money? Where is the real justice if everything had to be replaced with money?

However, not a few government officials who do not use money politics in candidacy for local office in the election, but still won the election, for example, are a couple Joko Widodo and Ahok.

Restriction Problem

From the description on the identification problem, see the breadth of issues it discussed. Given this, the author gives the extent of the problem by focusing the discussion on whether the money into the real power in Indonesia?

The Intention and Purpose of The Research

1.3.1 The Intention of Research

This study is intended to complete the final task of the basics of political science in semester 1 and also as a condition to participate in Semester Final Exam Lecture Fundamentals of Political Science, International Relations Department. Padjadjaran University academic year 2012/2013

1.3.2 The Purpose of Research

Apply the knowledge and theories in the study of International Relations proportion

Knowing and tried to explain the methods of descriptive analysis of the money is the real power in Indonesia

Provide an overview of the can be leaded by money.

The Methods of Research

The research methodology used by the authors to collect data on the methods of literature study is a method of data collection were obtained by using secondary data or data obtained from books or literature, documents, journals, internet, article clippings and information obtained from the media other prints that are relevant to the issues to be investigated.

The author also uses research methods to study the descriptive (Descriptive Research) is a data collection technique in which the research is trying to tell the existing solutions based on the data which will then be further analyzed and interpreted. The purpose of this study is to solving the problem in a systematic and factual about the facts on the ground.

CHAPTER II

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

Power

Power is one of the basic concepts of political science. The basic concept of science

The politics are:

State

Roger F. Soltau, Political science is the study of the state, it aim and purposes…the institutions by which these are going to be realized, its relations with its individual members, and other state. [2] 

Power

Decision-making

Decision-making as a central concept of political concerns taken decisions binding on the whole community collectively. [3] 

Policy

a collection of decisions taken by a political actor or group in an attempt to choose goals and ways to achieve it. [4] 

Distribution or allocation

distribution and rationing of values ​​in society. because, the uneven distribution of it often leads to conflict [5] 

However, the discussion of this paper, will be more emphasis on the basic concepts of political science, namely, the power.

Power is a someone or group’s ability to influence someone or other group to act in a way contrary to the way she/he would to act [6] . According to W.A Robson, in the University Teaching of Social Sciences, he said “Political science is concerned with the study of power in a society…its nature, basis, processes, scope and results. The focus of interest of the political scientist…centres on the struggle to gain or retain power, to exercise power or influence over others, or to resist that exercise [7] 

According to John Emerich Edward Dalberg Acton, first Baron Acton (1834-1902), he said that “Power tends to corrupt, and absolute power corrupts absolutely. Great men are almost always bad men.”

These meaning become clearer when you recognize that the word power itself stems from the older Latin term potere defined as an ability to affect something else. [8] 

In modern times, intertwined relationship between power and the state. Thus, the state

once synonymous with power, where there is a country that is where there is a ruler who controlled the country. As Deliar Noer said in his introduction to the political thought (1965)

Power has two characteristics, they are coercive and persuasive:

Power is Coercive

Coercive powers that be will be held with the threat of sanctions or force.

Power is Persuasive

The persuasive power is power through the process of solicitation, the convincing, arguing without violence or threats.

There are four types of power:

Force : power involving physical means

Persuasion : influence

Manipulation

Exchange : the use of power through incentives

Inside there is a power source of the power itself. There are several sources that cause this power can occur, including the power source in the form of status, wealth or trust. [9] 

Power source in the form of wealth such as happened to a businessman or entrepreneur has the power to charge its rights against a person who has borrowed (eg, debt). Power source in the form of position, for example, a director has the power to govern their employees to do the work in accordance with the wishes of the director and a deadline gathering tasks.

Political System by Harold Laswell

Political system that defined by Harold Lawell about the formation and distribution of power. Also described in a book written by Harold Laswell’s “Who gets what, when, how” in 1936. Harold Laswell said that the political system is, Who is to get what, when, and how. “

Money Politic

Money politics has a different definition in the international world. The definition of money in American politics is the context of the large amounts of money donated to a political party or candidate for president / governor to protect the business interests of the donor or by influencing government policy action if prospective presidential / gubernatorial ruler helm of public office (Flores, 2000). [10] 

If in Indonesia, money politics has a meaning as giving money or goods or certain facilities, and certain promises to the people that a person can be selected whether such a regional head / deputy head (Teten Masduki, 2004). [11] 

Pfeiffer (2004) defined that money politics occurred in the relationship between political parties and candidates as well as organizing elections with voters.

There are four risks associated with money in politics requires immediate control measures, namely : (Money in Politics, Handbook 2003)

Uneven playing field

Unequal access to the top leadership of public office

> is the risk that a particular group or impeded from engaging in politics because of the limited financial owned

Co-opted Politicians

> is a risk that elected politicians co-opted by the donors who contributed money to the politicians.

Tainted Politics

>The risk that illegal and illicit money will contaminate and weaken the legal system.

CHAPTER III

SESSION

Money and Corruption

The third word is no stranger to political life in Indonesia today. Money, government, and corruption are the three elements that are different but have a strong relationship among the three. If you combine those three things can produce another word, namely, power.

In 2005, according to data of Pasific Economic and Risk Consultancy, Indonesia is in the first rank of the most corrupt state in the world. [12] M. Jasin (Vice Chairman of the Commission) revealed that the majority of corruption in central and local government is the procurement of goods and services. 30-40% deviation. That is, if the procurement budget of Rp 400 trillion, meaning the money that corruption reaches about 100 trillion. [13] 

Rampant cases of corruption against the government, civil servants, and others prove that money is everything and can be blinding, so that the parties dared to engage in corruption in order to meet their own needs without considering that the money they take is owned by Indonesian citizens.

The corruption happens because of some reasons:

Menurut Dr. Sarlito W. Sarwono: [14] 

Dorongan dari dalam diri sendiri (keinginan, hasrat, kehendak, dan sebagainya)

Rangsangan dari luar (dorongan teman-teman, adanya kesempatan, kurang kontrol dan sebagainya)

According to the Financial and Development Supervisory Agency (BPK) in his book entitled “Strategy to Fight Corruption,” such as: [15] 

Aspects of Individual Actors

Greedy human nature

Less powerful moral

Income insufficient

Urgent need of life

Consumptive lifestyle

Lazy or unwilling to work

Aspects of Organization

Lack of leadership exemplary attitude

Not the right organizational culture

proper system of accountability in government agencies inadequate

weakness of management control systems

Management tends to cover up corruption within the organization

Aspects of Individual or Organization’s Place

The values ​​in society conducive to corruption Corruption can be caused by the culture of the community.

People unaware of a major corruption

People are less aware when he was involved in corruption

People were not aware that corruption will be prevented and eradicated when people become active

These data are released by the KPK (Corruption Eradication Commission: [16] 

Money muller State 2004-2012*

Rp 39,3 Trillion by The Corruptor

Ambassador

4

Prosecutor

2

Others

31

Echelon I, II, dan III

106

Private

69

Anggota DPR dan DPRD

65

Mayor/Regent and vice regent

31

Governor

8

Commissionary

7

Head of institute/ministry

6

Judge

5

*jumlah kasus/orang

By looking at the number of cases or the number of people who engage in corruption of the data it can be seen that most cases of corruption committed by civil servants (Echelon I, II, and III) were 106 cases, members of Parliament and the Council by 65 cases. Secondly it is very ironic because, members of Parliament and the Council should be the receptacle aspirations and desires of the community instead commit corrupt acts of corruption money is the money of the people of Indonesia.

Financial Transaction Reports Analysis Center (INTRAC) found suspicious transaction data, the value of which reached hundreds of billions of dollars, INTRAC 2392 report also found suspicious transactions involving the names of local officials. It consists of 187 regional treasurer, 376 from various agencies of government officials, and 729 of the finance staff. Data is as of until last May 2012. [17]  

Nazaruddin’s Case

In addition, the case recently in the news is about the bribery homestead athletes by Nazaruddin and Angelina Sondakh. This is a case of bribery in procurement projects Pensions SEA Games Athletes worth 191 billion. [18] Ironically, the suspect, Nazaruddin, at that time still be hanging around before finally arrested in Colombia

Gayus H. Tambunan’s Case

Case of Tax evasion committed by Gayus Halomoan Tambunan to 149 companies have cost the country billions of dollars. [19] It is highly implausible because, in the account of Gaius are billions of dollars, when Gaius was a civil servant group III in the Directorate General of Taxation.

Suddenly there was money in the account Gayus drastically reduced, indicating that the intervention of law enforcement on the case of Gayus (bribery). Gayus had become a highly sought fugitives. He easily in and out of Indonesia. It shows that the weak laws in Indonesia. Since Gaius has a lot of treasures from the top 149 companies on tax evasion at hand, he used the money to bribe law enforcement officials that he remains free to travel anywhere.

Corruption in Parliament

The House of Representatives is supposed to be representative of the entire people of Indonesia, now became one enemy to the people of Indonesia. The number of cases of corruption involving board members made ​​the Indonesian people no longer believe and no sympathy for the people’s representatives. The council members are supposed to be collecting people’s aspirations, now corruption, where money is corrupted money belongs to the people of Indonesia.

Many factors are pushing the House of Representatives of committing corruption, among others, in the absence of a holistic anti-corruption programs at the three institutions. No tangible and measurable targets for combating corruption until 2014. While until now the decision makers in the legislative, executive, judicial many do the corruption. [20] 

Listed in the statute, If the Indonesian parliament member convicted in corruption, so long his/her imprisonment of 5 years or more. However, the fact that many are not carried out in accordance with the statute. [21] 

Looking from the incident, raised an analysis of why it feels as if the corruption case dismissed or not be a problem, which means views from the detention period granted by the court proceeds to the suspects in corruption cases. Another factor that caused this to happen is the law enforcement in this country is not fair, because of the law enforcement elements of dishonesty and cheating in resolving cases of corruption by law and resell the articles toying alleged thereby easing the graft suspects. Why do they do it? Because indications of bribery to law enforcement, so that the punishment received by the alleged corruption cases not so heavy. This is one example of how money is very powerful in Indonesia.

Money Politics in Political Party

In this day, many political parties are indications of corruption. Why does it happen? Because, the culture of money politics in the party camp.

Busyro Muqoddas said, process due to political corruption stemmed practical political education is always colored by the politics of money. Thus, Busyro concluded that money politics is what has led to political corruption. [22] 

KPK deputy chairman, Bibit S Rianto rate there are two main causes of corruption in Indonesia. That is, the politics of money in elections and political corruption. “The two points that are the source of corruption in Indonesia,” said Bibit in his office. [23] 

Money Politics in Election

Many of the implications of the relationship between money and politics in the new states applying democracy system. According to commend democracy money can dominate the political sector and politicians, money can also create policies that lead to corruption. But money is also used as a source of threat from uncontrolled crime and criminalpractices. [24] 

Politicians need money to achieve the position they want. Especially in the campaign process, they will do a lot of things that people pick them up and eventually win the politicians and get the position he wanted. It may indicate the emergence of money politics by the politician. [25] 

As is known that, in the local elections in ancient times to be closed, however, today things have changed. In Statute no. 32/2004 on Regional Government and Government Regulation. 6/2005 on the Election, endorsement appointment and dismissal of the Head of the Regional and Deputy Regional effectively set-up creates a radically new institutional framework in which the head of the local level of government directly elected by local people directly. [26] 

The definition of money politics contained in Law No. 32/2004 which is also stated in Article 82 paragraph (1), which states that candidates and / or prohibited promising campaign team and / or provide money and materials to influence voters.

Examples of cases of money politics that occur in the head region occurred in pemelihan Cilacap. In Cilacap elections on Sunday (12 September, 2012), it has secured local Panwas money worth Rp 214 million. That kind of money earned villagers Bantarsari Bantarsari District, of some person known as a successful team member candidates Cilacap regent and vice regent, Novita Wijayanti-Mochammad Muslich. [27] 

Here’s a table of money mechanism to affect the politics: [28] 

Mechanism Money in Affecting the Politics

Secondary and Minor Contribution

Politicians elected and person who is appointed

Illegal source(incl. public fund)

Major Contributor

Party Campaign Fund and Candidate

Between:

Constituent services: pay the needs of other elector but still have significant value.

Illegal:

Buy voters, bribing media, and other bribery.

Legal:

Brochure, convoy, transportation, food, T-shirt, poster, TV ads, radio ads

Elected officials

Illegal:

Feedback or bribery, refused to criticize the policy

Legal:

Appointment to potential position, project in their own area

However, with so many examples of cases of money politics by some candidates in the general election of regional heads, still no regional head candidates who use a little money in his campaign, but managed to win the elections. Examples of such cases at the Jakarta gubernatorial election between pairs Joko Widodo – Tjahaja Basuki Purnama and competitors, Fauzi Bowo – Nachrowi Ramli.

Compared between Joko Widodo-Tjahaja Basuki Purnama (Jokowi-Ahok), Fauzi Bowo – Nachrowi Ramli (Foke-Nara) campaign fund reached seven times. Couple Foke-Nara is supported campaign fund of Rp 70 billion, while the Ahok – Jokowi only about USD 9 billion. [29] 

The Relations between Money, Politics, and Power

It’s not easy to separate these three words, money, politics and power. If you want to get the power, you need a political strategy and money to achieve the power that you want.

However, the relationship is three words get a negative sense because of how that is done by those who want power do not match the values ​​already exist from earlier in the Indonesian society. They could have justified an immediate way to get the power they want. For example, they pay bribes to those who are considered to have contributed greatly to making the party to power.

In the end if it continues, it will cause a problem is corruption and money politics. Ironically, according to data provided by the Commission, these data indicate that the number of cases or the greatest in the case of corruption by civil servants. Then, followed by the private sector and members of the Parliament and the Council. Of the three large amount pidanan acts of corruption, two of whom are working in the sector of government.

It is apparent that, close connection between money and politics in the country of Indonesia. The parties concerned have a vested interest in the political life in Indonesia. So, they will do all means to achieve the interests and desires. Although the method has violated the norm.

Money politics is one of currently problems in Indonesia. Because of it, there’s an impact that already happened. President of Republic Indonesia, Soesilo Bambang Yudhoyono said, “As we know that money is always within politics in every ways. But, money politics could break and get down the quality of democracy, because it causes the leader or politician has to ‘service’ the person who give the money at the cost of public interest.” [30] 

By doing so, the moral of the Indonesian people began to erode with the habits of bad behavior by those who think only about their own interests and the group. Buy everything with money to gain power. If the only way that they use to gain power in accordance with what they want is good, then the level of corruption and the practice of money politics in this country is very low. How does a leader will lead his people well, if the leader is still doing deviant ways to get power or other interests that they want.

CHAPTER IV

CONCLUSION

The conclusion of this final task of the basics of political science is it true that nowadays, there is a displacement of power. The power is not leaded by Trias Politica, Executive, Legislative, and Judicative. But, today, there is a displacement of power of political system in Indonesia, where the power can be leaded by someone who has a lot of money, so the justice of law can be changed by money. Like according to political system which is defined by Harold Laswell, “Who gets what, when and how”. If that statement is applied with the power, so it can be defined, How to get the position and the power in various ways. And if this thing is related with money, so it’s like what happening in Indonesia, today. Where the money as a barometer, how much the power that they have.

Even the relations between money, politics, and power is hard to be separated. And those things are really related in political life in Indonesia now. If you want to get a power, you need a political strategy and good financial, so you can achieve the power that you want. But, their way when trying to reach what they want is wrong. So, in the end, something wrong is appearing because of the way that they have done. For example, corruption.

Looking from so many corruption cases that happen in Indonesia, and the suspects of corruption cases did not get the fair punishment of what they have done. Indications of bribery cases to the prosecutors in many cases, shows that how low moral of Indonesia people, so it can be subjected to the money. The law enforcement toying with the existing statute, so it can make an easier the burden of the punishment that will be accepted by the corruption suspects.

Beside corruption cases, there are also cases of money politics by political parties to be one of the root causes of corruption. In order to get the position of power they want, they do money politics. It happened because, when they did a campaign, the spent out a lot of money to win them at the election. That is one of the causes why they did a corruption at the time served as the top officials. This thing impressed to return the capital they had done during the campaign.

Thus, it can be concluded that the money has shifted the values ​​of justice in Indonesia today. Many people who are blinded by money. The parties have a position, power, and have abundant wealth can do anything to achieve what they want. So, the powers that be in Indonesia, slowly now been dominated by money. Although there are still a handful of groups that did not commendable way to get the position they want, however, can not be denied if the power of money is still difficult to be replaced with honesty.

SUGGESTION

I suggest to any reader who wants to have a high position in the government of Indonesia, do it in a fair and clean. not in a way that is unfair, such as money politics. despite having extra money, but it is not good for the morale of the nation of Indonesia. the real power does not come from money, but from the capacity and capabilities, whether we deserve to rule over something. because, if starting the wrong way it will cause lasting impact, such as corruption.

And for the law enforcement, be the people who defend the law and the right to take action against the cases. Be a fair law enforcement and is not easy to bribe by parties who are not responsible. Provide a good moral example for the people of Indonesia, in order to have a better future